№ 1 2013
The article emphasizes the importance for studing Golden Horde theme in order to understand the history of the Tatars, Russia, and Eastern Europe. The author argues that both the Golden Horde and the whole Tatar factor cannot be considered as an occasional episode in the medieval history of Russia, but emerged from their own background of Turkic traditions. The category of the “Long Middle Ages” is analyzed by applying it to the history of the Tatars.
Keywords: Golden Horde, Middle Ages, Russia, Tatars, Eastern Europe.
About the author: Rafael Sibgatovich Khakimov – director, Sh.Marjani Institute of History, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan (AS RT), vice-president of AS RT, academician of AS RT, Doctor of historical sciences (Kazan, Russian Federation); firstname.lastname@example.org
The article examines the earliest stages of the history of the Tatars. The origins of the Tatars are traced from the collapse of both the Han Empire and the Empire of Xiongnu and are considered during the subsequent periods preceding the emergence of the empire of Genghis Khan. The author argues that the Tatar state appeared long before the Mongol era, providing information on the resettlement of the Tatars in the 9th and 10th centuries, which explains why a century later the Mongols, who occupied the same space, were called the “Tatars” in the Turkic and Muslim environment, as well as in China. This Turkic designation of the Mongols took root not only in Central Asia and the Middle East but also in Russia and Western Europe.
Keywords: ancient history of Central Asia, the origin of the Tatars, the criticism of historiographical concepts, Chinese sources, Rashid ad-Din.
About the author: Sergey Grigor’evich Klyashtorny – head of the Department of Turkic and Mongolian Studies, St. Petersburg branch of the Institute of Oriental Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences, professor, Kandidat nauk (scientific degree) in historical sciences (St. Petersburg, Russian Federation); email@example.com
AND KHUBILAI KHAN
The article examines the main stages in the development of the Mongolian ideology of Tenggerism. The author proves that the final (Third) stage of Tenggerism began with the reign of Khubilai Khan who completed the creation of a world empire by the conquest of the whole of China. Unlike his predecessors, Khubilai Khan was less engaged in the conquests than in solving the problems of pacification and consolidation of a world empire. As a result, the Mongolian ideology of Tenggerism underwent great changes through the impulse of the Buddhist religious and political philosophy. The enhanced cult of the imperial court and the colorful ceremonies of Indo-Tibetan Buddhist tantric deities (such as Mahakala and Sitapatra), introduced by Khubilai Khan at the initiative of ‘Phags-pa Bla-ma, contained a demonstration of Buddhist god-like nature of a worldwide empire. If Tenggerism had legalized the world conquests of the Mongols, then Buddhism in its Tibetan form of Lamaism was subsequently revered in order to consecrate the peaceful domination of the thin Mongolian elites over the entire world.
Keywords: Mongolian ideology of world domination, Khubilai Khan, international cultural exchanges, political pragmatism, Buddhist universalism.
About the author: Shagdar Bira – honorary president of the International Association of Mongolian Studies, professor, academician of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of historical sciences (Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia); firstname.lastname@example.org
chronicles and sagas)
The article deals with geographic descriptions in the Icelandic sagas. In the 12th through the 14th centuries Scandinavia special geographical works contained descriptions of the inhabited world based both on West-European chorographical tradition and local topographic information about Northern and Eastern Europe. At the same time we can often come across “written geography” in the sagas. Geographical descriptions occur in the sagas of different genres, their functions and their sources are quite varied. Different saga authors possessed different degrees of skill in inserting the geographical material into their narrative. The main attention in this article is paid to the geographic description that we find in the Icelandic “Göngu-Hrólfs saga”, relating to the sagas of ancient times and written down, probably, at the beginning of the 14th century, namely – to the description of
Keywords: Old-Norse-Icelandic Sagas, “written geography”, “textual maps”, topography of Northern and Eastern Europe, description of the “State of the Tatars”.
About the author: Tatjana Nikolaevna Jackson – chief research scientist, Institute of World History, Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of historical sciences (Moscow, Russian Federation); email@example.com
The author of the present study describes Rashid al-Din’s work “Shuab-i Pandjghana” obtained from the archives of the Topkapi Palace Museum in Istanbul. The article contains a brief description of the previous study of this important work. The author presents his own version about how “Shuab-i pandjghana” came to Anatolia, how the latest version of Rashid al-Din’s work corresponds to his famous composition “Compendium of Chronicles”, and tries to determine the date when this wide genealogy was created. The author also analyzes the information on the “Shuab-i pandjghana” contained in A.P.Grigoryev’s study.
Keywords: Rashid al-Din, Shuab-i pandjghana, “Five Genealogies”, Collection of chronicles, Topkapi Palace Museum, Genghis-khan, Jochi-khan, Uzbek.
About the author: Il’nur Midkhatovich Mirgaleev – chief, Usmanov Center for Studies of Golden Horde History, Sh.Marjani Institute of History, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan, Kandidat nauk (scientific degree) in historical sciences (Kazan, Russian Federation); firstname.lastname@example.org
The article considers the dynamics of relations between Russia and the Horde during the 15th century. These relations were determined by the gradual disintegration of the Horde and the parallel strengthening of the Moscow principality. The author defines the main attributes of the Russian political dependence on the Horde in the 14th century (the practice of granting the yarlyk’s authorizing the rule of the Russian princes and their obligation to pay an “exit fee”), which had a direct influence on the nature of mutual relations. The article traces both the persistent attempts of the Moscow princes to free themselves from vassalage during periods of political instability in the Horde and the constant tendency to recognize subordination in the periods of the strengthening of the khans’ power. The author points to a significant activation of the foreign policy of the Moscow princes over a few decades prior to the approval of Russian independence. This tendency had determined the subsequent foreign policy of the Muscovite tzars after the collapse of the Horde at the beginning of the 16th century.
Keywords: disintegration of the Golden Horde, Russian principalities, foreign relations, Russian chronicles, documentary sources, Tatar states after the collapse of the Horde.
About the author: Anton Anatol’evich Gorsky – professor, Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University, leading research scientist, Institute of Russian History, Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of historical sciences (Moscow, Russian Federation); email@example.com
IN RUSSIAN GENEALOGICAL SOURCES
The “Genealogy of the Tatar Sovereigns” preserved in various (official and private) genealogical books of the 16th–17th centuries is a unique and precious monument of both the Tatar and Russian history. This text owes its existence to the lively interest of the Russian state towards the inner relations of the declining Tatar states in the middle of the 16th century. Its genesis cannot be disconnected from the Russian conquests of Kazan and Astrakhan. The bulk of the genealogies was compiled in the 1550s and based on Tatar sources. A critical analysis of these genealogies, comparing every piece of information with other contemporary (Russian and Oriental) sources, is a task yet to be accomplished, but the significance of these texts is beyond doubt. What I tried to do in this paper was to emphasize and analyze a few noteworthy aspects of this group of documents.
Keywords: Tatar dynasties, genealogy, Chingisids, Russian genealogical sources.
About the author: István Vásáry – professor, Eötvös Loránd University, Doctor of historical sciences (Budapest, Hungary); firstname.lastname@example.org
The article presents the development of the European cartography of Eurasia as a reflection of the gradual accumulation of geographic and ethnographic information about people and states, which history was directly connected with the formation and subsequent dissolution of Genghis Khan’s empire. The author traces the gradual increase in the information on eastern regions among western cartographers, which however consistently compared the strengthened Russian State with the “Tartar kingdoms”. The author emphasizes as well the importance of the information provided by the European maps for the study of the state structure of the Golden Horde, of the formation of the new Eurasian nations and of Russia’s relations with the Tatar states.
Keywords: legacy of the Mongol Empire, topography of the Golden Horde, European cartography, Muscovy, cultural stereotypes.
About the author: Igor Konstantinovich Fomenko – senior research scientist, State Historical Museum, Kandidat nauk (scientific degree) in historical sciences (Moscow, Russian Federation); email@example.com
OF POWER IN THE GOLDEN HORDE AND LATE MEDIEVAL
TURKIC-MONGOL STATES OF THE 15TH–18TH CENTURIES
«Higher School of Economics»)
The article deals with a new factor of legitimating power in the late medieval Chinggisid states established after the decline and fall of the ‘steppe empires’ of the Yuan Dynasty, Ilkhanate in Iran, Chagatai Ulus, and Golden Horde. The decrease of Chinggisid power resulted in the appearance of other claimants for the throne (non-Chinggisid dynasties) who used another factors for legitimazation, in particular – the religious one. To save their power, the Chinggisids as well had to appeal to religion – Islam in the Turkic states and Buddhism in Mongol ones.
Keywords: Mongol Empire, steppe empires, Golden Horde, Chinggisids, factors of legitimation, religion and authority, Islam, Buddhism, clergy.
About the author: Roman Yulianovich Pochekaev – associate professor, Law Faculty, St. Petersburg branch of the National Research University «Higher School of Economics», Kandidat nauk (scientific degree) in jurisprudence (St. Petersburg, Russian Federation); firstname.lastname@example.org
The history of the Crimean Khanate’s foundation still remains poorly studied. Also, little is known about the early years of the first Crimean khan Haci I Giray whose ancestors ruled in the Crimea and the Golden Horde.
In the 20s of the 15th century the Grand Duke of Lithuania Vytautas actively intervened in the affairs of the Crimea and the Golden Horde trying to establish his sovereignty in the city of Caffa, where he strove to nominate subordinated khans. However, at the end of his reign, he could not exert a serious military pressure because until he died, he was occupied with his coronation.
The boundaries of the Crimean tumen extended from the river Dniester in the West to the Volga River in the East, from the mean flow of the Dnieper and Southern Bug River in the North to the coastal cities of the Crimean peninsula in the south. In the first half of 15th century, there were many stationary settlements of Tatars in the Black Sea steppes. Thus, the tumen occupied a large territory.
Having a great military power, the Crimean rulers did not separate the Crimean Ulus from the Golden Horde, but used the peninsula as a staging area for the seizure of power in the state capital city of Sarai.
The Tatar nobility also sought to enthrone those khans who would be dependent on them. One of their strongest representatives was Tehene-bey who had a residence in Solkhat on the Crimean peninsula. He persuaded Vytautas to give them Ulugh Muhammad as a khan. In response, the khan nominated Tehene-bey as his deputy in the Crimea.
A few years later, Ulugh Muhammad quarreled both with Tehene-bey and the Lithuanian ruler Švitrigaila. In 1433, the Grand Duke of Lithuania helped Khan Sayid Ahmad II both to split the Golden Horde and to seize power on the right bank of the Dnieper.
According to many historians, Haci Giray seized power in the Crimea and defeated a Genoese military detachment in 1434, but this statement is not confirmed by the written sources and numismatic data. The assumption of some historians that Haci Giray took power with the help of the Lithuanian Grand Duke, Sigismund Keystutovich, has no confirmation. The Crimean peninsula had been owned by Ulugh Muhammad Khan before 1441, and thereafter by Sayid Ahmad II for a short time.
It is not known exactly where Haci I Giray had been staying in the 30s, but in the early 40’s, he resided in Lithuania. In the spring of 1442, Tehene-bey arrived in Lithuania with the Embassy of the Crimean nobles and convinced the new Lithuanian ruler, Casimir, to allow Haci Giray to become the Khan of Crimea.
The analysis of sources leads to the conclusion that Haci Giray appeared as a khan in March-April 1442. Possibly the actions of the Lithuanian Grand Duke in relation to Crimea were agreed with his elder brother Władysław III, King of Poland and Hungary. The Ambassador T. Buczacki visited Haci Giray in the summer of 1442 on behalf of Władysław III. He returned to Hungary together with the ambassador of the Tatar khan.
Haci I Giray remained under the patronage of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. This is confirmed by the peace agreements signed in February and June 1442 between the Grand Duke of Lithuania, Casimir and ruler of Moldavia, Iliaş I.
Using the patronage of the Lithuanian ruler, Haci Giray quickly established his authority on the Crimean peninsula.
Keywords: North Black Sea region, Crimea, Golden Horde, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Ulugh Muhammad khan, Sayid Ahmad II khan, Haci Giray khan.
About the author: Vladislav Petrovich Gulevych – chief adviser, Office for Relations with the Local Government and Local Authorities to the Staff of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, MA (History) (Kiev, Ukraine); email@example.com
THE DISPUTE OVER CONCLUSION OF THE AGREEMENT:
BASED ON NEW DOCUMENTS (1)
The article examines the period of transition of the territory of Crimea under the protectorate of the Ottoman Empire. Recently in the archives of the Topkapi Palace Museum, new documents have been discovered on the history of the Golden Horde containing the letters of the Crimean khans and beys. On the basis of these new historical sources, the author clarifies the contentious issues related to the agreement between Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror and Mengli I Giray and reveals the reasons that influenced the way the Crimea became subservient to the Ottoman Empire.
Keywords: expansion of the Ottoman Empire, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Northern Black Sea, Crimean Khanate, new sources on the history of the Golden Horde.
About the author: Halil İnalcık – professor, Bilkent University, Doctor of historical sciences (Ankara, Turkey); firstname.lastname@example.org
Although the Tatars occupy an important place in the history of southeastern Europe, the majority of local historians played down the significance of the Tatars, and this trend is occurring even today. The reason for this was primarily the fact that the Tatars were confused with the Mongols, and due to this erroneous perception the Christian Church for centuries waged propaganda against the Tatars. Romanian historians as well approach with prejudice to the topics relevant to the Tatars. The most important historical fact is that the Tatars and their ancestors the Kipchaks / Polovtsy (Cumans) played an important role in the formation and subsequent development both of the Romanian nation and statehood. In the history of Romania, the Tatars and the Ottoman Turks acted as defenders. The Tatars of Crimea, of Dobruja, and of Budjak repeatedly performed this defensive duty.
Keywords: Tatars, Ottomans, Dobruja, Budjak, history, Southeastern Europe.
About the author: Tasin Tair Gemil – Director Institute of Turkology and Central-Asian Studies of the Babes-Bolyai University, Doctor of historical sciences (Cluj-Napoca, Romania); email@example.com
AS A HISTORICAL SOURCE (1)
This article contains a concise representation of the most challenging issues of medieval Oriental numismatics. The author emphasizes the importance of numismatic information for the study of the economic situation in the states and in some regions, of the dynamics of commodity-money relations, of the nature of the monetary policy pursued by the authorities, of the structure of money circulation in the states, of the administrative structure of the states and its changes over time, of the political declaration of power by issuers of coins, of the religious policy of the states, of the sequence and chronology of the reigns, and of many other aspects of Oriental history. In parallel, the article points to some limitations of numismatics as a historical source. The author points to the impossibility to formulate a patterned approache, rules, and regulations, which observance in numismatic research would always lead to the obtaining of all necessary and standardized information. The numismatic objects are polyparametric, and in most cases their parameters appear to be informative and may be disclosed only in specific historical situations of the particular historical periods and of the particular states.
Keywords: medieval Oriental numismatics, coin legends, coins issuer and title, metal used in coins, mint, dating of the coins, images on the coins, coin cartouche, religious symbols, tamgas.
About the author: Pavel Nikolaevich Petrov – research scientist, Usmanov Center for Studies of the Golden Horde History, Sh.Marjani Institute of History, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan, Kandidat nauk (scientific degree) in historical sciences (Nizhny Novgorod, Russian Federation); firstname.lastname@example.org
OF THE KIEVAN RUS’ TO THE MONGOL EMPIRE
In this paper I would like to present fragments of the Russian chronicles from the 13th and 14th centuries dedicated to the period of submission of Rus’ to the Mongols in 1237–1260.
The process of submission of Russia to the Golden Horde is divided into two periods. The first one (1237–40) regards properly the Mongol invasion of Russian territories. The second period (1240–60) concerns the gradual submission of Russia to the Golden Horde, the process which had a more peaceful nature.
The Mongol invasion was the defining moment for Kievan Rus’: for the first time in its history, the Russian population underwent a full-scale extermination with the destruction of chief towns. Contemporary to the invasion, Russian chronicles describe warfare at length and show emotional involvement as well. The requirement of the Mongol governors of absolute submission to their power with payment of the tenth share from all types of income and property are perceived as absolutely inadmissible. The succeeding destruction of the main towns of Russia, the last centres of resistance, is perceived in chronicles as a divine punishment for lack of military cooperation between the Russian princes. The Mongols themselves are presented as tabsolutely alien to orthodox culture and their pagan customs cause disgust in the authors of Russian chronicles.
The subsequent period of the gradual submission of Russia to the Golden Horde is not less important in the evolution of political and cultural relations between nomads and the Russian settled population. Russian chronicles testify to fast restoration of towns after the Mongol invasion and stabilization of economic life. The governors of the Golden Horde are limited by the requirement of formal submission of the Russian princes which avoided direct military showdowns. Russia gradually became involved in the fiscal system of the Mongolian empire, but in exchange Russian princes receive a considerable political autonomy.
Keywords: Medieval Russia, Mongol invasions, Russian Chronicles, interaction between the Mongols and the Russian principalities, fiscal system of the Mongol empire.
About the author: Roman Hautala – researcher, Historical branch at the Faculty of Humanities, University of Oulu, PhD (History) (Oulu, Finland); email@example.com