№ 3 2014



  Khakimov R.S.    6-21

Zero Point of Historical Time »


R.S. Khakimov

(Sh.Marjani Institute of History, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan)

Historical studies are based on the assumption that there is a reference-starting point of the space-time – the Zero point of coordinate system. Due to the bifurcation in the Zero Point, the course of social processes changes sharply and the probabilistic causality replaces the deterministic one. For this reason, changes occur in the structure of social relations and statehood form as well as in the course of the ethnic processes. In such a way emerges a new discourse of the national behavior.

With regard to the history of the Tatars and Tatarstan, such bifurcation points occurred in the periods of the formation:

1) of the Turkic Khaganate, which began to exist from the 6th century onward and became a qualitatively new State system that reformatted old elements in the new matrix introducing a new discourse of behavior;

2) of the Volga-Kama Bulgaria, where the rivers (Kama, Volga, Vyatka) became the most important trade routes determining the singularity of this State. Here the nomadic culture was connected with the settled one and Islam became the official religion in 922;

3) and of the Golden Hordе, a powerful State with a remarkable system of communication, migration of huge human resources for thousands of kilometers, and extensive trade, that caused severe “mutations” in the ethnic terms and a huge mixing of ethnic groups.

Given the dwelling space of Tatar population and its evolution within Russia, it can be argued that the Zero point of Tatar history, which conveyed the cultural invariants until today, begins in the Golden Horde. Neither in the Turkic khaganate nor in the Bulgar State, but namely in the Golden Horde.

Despite the radical changes, the Russian Empire failed to transform the Tatars in the Russians. Therefore, contemporary Tatars preserved the Golden Horde tradition as a cultural invariant.

Keywords: Tatars, Volga-Kama Bulgaria, Golden Horde, Russia, Zero point of history, historical time.

About the author: Rafail’ Sibgatovich Khakimov – Director, Sh.Marjani Institute of History, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan (AS RT), Vice-president of AS RT, Academician of AS RT, Dr. Sci. (History) (420014, Kremlin, entrance 5, Kazan, Russian Federation); history@tataroved.ru

* Translation from Russian to English by Roman Hautala.

  Mirgaleev I.М.    22-30

Kurultai of 1235: Question of Expansion of the Ulus of Jochi »


I.М. Mirgaleev

(Sh.Marjani Institute of History, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan)

The article examines the Genghisid kurultai held in 1235. The author notes that in many aspects the kurultai of 1235 not only differed from other similar kurultais, but did not quite fit into the political reality of the early imperial period. The author examines in some detail the purpose of the new Western campaign of the Tatar-Mongols. Despite the fact that the Western campaign had a pan-Mongolian character, it contributed to a significant enhancement precisely of the Jochids pushed off earlier into the background by other Genghisids. Batu Khan, the new ruler of the Jochid ulus, succeeded both in extending the ulus of Jochi and resuscitating the ulus of his father. But most importantly, he won the right to lead the army of the whole empire, which immediately changed his status and the status of the Jochids. In a fairly short time, the Jochids had been strengthened to such an extent that they were able to take revenge from their cousins. After had defeated the descendants of Ogedei and brought to power the Toluids, the Jochids willingly relinquish power in the “indigenous yurt”, since they already possessed vast territories and established a functioning state system. They used their influence in the capital only to strengthen their own ulus. The Jochids tried to keep the Mongol Empire under their control by ensuring decision-making at the next kurultais in accordance with their political interests.

The author believes that there were active negotiations among the Genghisids before the kurultay of 1235. The fact that the Western campaign was headed by Batu and not by the sons of Ogedei, represented an unconditional victory of the Jochid “family” diplomacy, since previously the Jochids were not allowed to the leadership of the Mongol campaigns. Thanks to the Western campaign, the Jochids were able to expand their possessions to such an extent that, immediately after the campaign, their relationship with the central government and other Genghisids acquired quite a different character.

Keywords: ulus of Jochi, kurultai, Mongol Empire, international relations, geopolitics, Genghisids, Jochids, Batu khan, Golden Horde.

About the author: Il’nur Midkhatovich Mirgaleev – Head of the Usmanov Center for Research on the Golden Horde History, Sh.Marjani Institute of History, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan, Cand. Sci. (History) (420014, Kremlin, entrance 5, Kazan, Russian Federation); dilnur1976@mail.ru

  Roman Hautala    31-48

Yarlyk of Uzbek Khan Granted to the Franciscans of the Golden Horde in 1314: The Latin Text, Russian Translation, and Commentary »


Roman Hautala

(Sh.Marjani Institute of History, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan)

The present article contains the Latin text, Russian translation, and commentary to the yarlyk of Uzbek khan (1312/13–1341). Uzbek khan granted this yarlyk to the Franciscans of the Golden Horde 20th March, 1314. Apparently, the original text of yarlyk was written in the Khwarezmian idiom of the Kipchak language. However, the original text of yarlyk has not been preserved as well as a number of other yarlyks of the Golden Horde khans, which survived only in the late Russian translation.

Fortunately, this yarlyk was translated into Latin and, subsequently, this translation was rewritten by anonymous British copyist in the first half of the 14th century. Arthur Christopher Moule discovered this medieval copy of yarlyk along with several other Franciscan documents in one of the codices (D. Ii. 3.7.) stored in the Cambridge University Library. In 1924, Moule published the first and only edition of the yarlyk’s copy together with other Franciscan sources, provided with a thorough preface of Michael Bihl.

The text of this Uzbek’s yarlyk have never been translated into modern languages. For this reason, the content of yarlyk has been known only to a narrow circle of specialists studying the Catholic missionary activity in the Mongol Empire. In turn, the scholars of the Golden Horde history, including researchers of the Jochid official documentation, have been unaware of this important legal document up to the present time.

The content of Uzbek khan’s yarlyk points out that this document was based on the previous yarlyks of khan Mengu-Timur (1267–1282) and khan Tokhta (1291–1312). Thus, the content of yarlyk allows us to define the time of an emergence and future activities of the Franciscans in the territory of the Golden Horde. Furthermore, this information provide further evidence on the religious tolerance practice of the Jochid khans. In this context, the most significant is an indication of the Uzbek khan’s tolerant attitude toward Christians, despite the fact of his conversion to Islam.

Keywords: Golden Horde history, sources of the ulus of Jochi, Catholic missionary activity, yarlyks of the Golden Horde khans, religious policy of Uzbek khan.

About the author: Roman Hautala – Senior Research Fellow, Sh.Marjani Institute of History Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan; Researcher, Historical branch at the Faculty of Humanities, University of Oulu, PhD (History) (90014, Pentti Kaiteran st., 1, Oulu, Finland); virisequisque@hotmail.com

  Nadyrova Kh.G.    49-79

Development of Urban Planning Culture in the Kazan Khanate (2) »


Kh.G. Nadyrova

(Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering)

Relevance of this research lies in the fact that the urban culture of the Khanate of Kazan was not seen as a holistic phenomenon, which ceased to exist, according to the previous research, with its inclusion in the Russian State. On the other hand, researchers have identified in this holistic phenomenon traditional links and continuity with early stages of the Volga-Kama region development, i.e., with the Bulgarian and Golden Horde periods. In fact, the urban culture of the Khanate of Kazan represented the final stage of the Muslim period in the cultural development of the region.

The purpose of this work was to identify the characteristics of the process of urban planning culture in the Kazan Khanate as a complex system formed on the basis of the achievements of the region as part of the Golden Horde. Author of the study had the following objectives: 1. To trace the development of urban planning culture of the Kazan Khanate at all interconnected and interdependent levels of the system, namely, the spatial organization of the territory of the khanate, the city, and its architecture. 2. To identify the changes taking place at each of these levels under the influence of various factors and conditions, which in one form or another, were reflected on the system as a whole. 3. To identify the features of the development of urban planning culture of the Kazan Khanate in comparison with the Bulgarian and Golden Horde periods.

The research novelty of this work lies in the fact that its author used in the study of urban planning culture of the Kazan Khanate complex methodology both combining classical, cultural, and synergetic approach to the objects of research and allowing to consider it as a holistic and complex phenomenon in the development process, taking into account many factors and conditions. The author has been first both to define nature and characteristics of the capital city of the Kazan Khanate with the Muslim population and to establish its distinctive features from medieval towns in other regions of the Muslim world. For the first time, Kazan as well as urban culture of the Kazan Khanate in general, have been studied in the dynamics of development.

Keywords: urban planning, architecture, history, synergetics, сomplexity theory of the cities.

About the author: Khanifa Gabidullovna Nadyrova – Dean of the Faculty of General architectural and artistic training, Head of the Department of Architectural composition, Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering, Cand. Sci. (Architecture), Associate Professor (420043, Zelenaya st., 1, Kazan, Russian Federation); nadyrova-kh@yandex.ru

* The end of the article. See the beginning in: Golden Horde Review, 2014, no. 2(4), pp.147–171.

  Pilipchuk Ya.V.    80-102

Relations between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Kazan Khanate (1506–1552) »


Ya.V. Pilipchuk

(Institute of Oriental Studies n.a. A.E. Krymskyi of NAS of Ukraine)

This article considers the relationship between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Khanate of Kazan. The aim of this study is to analyze the dynamics and characteristics of the relations of the Kazan Khanate with Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Jagiellonian eastern policy is rightfully considered as one of the most important policy directions of the Polish Kings and Grand Dukes of Lithuania in the 16th century. Researchers have traditionally paid much more attention to the history of relations of the Crimean Khanate with Lithuania and Poland. Relations of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with Kazan Khanate have been considered in the source study articles by D. Mustafina and B. Trepavlov analyzing the content of documents preserved in the Lithuanian State Archives (Lithuanian Methric). The main theme of this article is the military and political history of Eastern Europe in the first half of the 16th century. The author aims to clarify to what extent the European policy of the Kazan Khanate depended on the personalities of Sahib Giray and Safa Giray and their personal relations with Sigismund I the Old. The novelty of this study lies in the fact that the author is the first to present to the researchers’ attention a complete picture of the Kazan-Lithuanian relations rather than focusing on particular issues of relations between the individual Grand Dukes and khans. The article examines the history of the interaction of the Kazan Tatars with Lithuanians and Poles in the context of relations of Lithuania with the Russian State and Crimean Khanate. Attempts to establish an anti-Russian alliance were undertaken during the first half of the 16th century. Mohammed Amin, from the dynasty of Ulugh Muhammad, expressed interest in the establishment of the union in 1506 only by the fact that it was profitable for him. In 1516–1518, the proposals of Sigismund I the Old to make an alliance did not meet the response in Kazan. In general, the dynasty of Ulugh Muhammad was not a supporter of rapprochement with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The real union between the Kazan Tatars and Lithuanians became possible only during the second rule of Safa Giray in Kazan. Only once and namely in 1535–1537, the Lithuanians supported Kazan in the war against the Russians. The continuous contact between the Kazan Khanate and Grand Duchy of Lithuania was only possible when the alliance was supported by the Crimean Khanate. Mutual raids of the Cossacks of Grand Duchy of Lithuania and troops of the Tatar frontier beys were one of the main destabilizing factors in the relationship between the Jagiellonians and Girays. The Kazan embassy to the Lithuanians and Poles in 1551 found no response from Sigismund II Augustus. The Jagiellonians were not interested in an alliance with the Kazan Tatars. Only the Crimean Girays and eastern Nogays were the staunch allies of Kazan.

Keywords: Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Kazan Khanate, Crimean Khanate, Giray dynasty, Jagiellonians, Lithuanians, Poles, Kazanians,Tatars.

About the author: Yaroslav Valentynovych Pilipchuk – Junior Research Fellow, Department of Eurasian Steppe, Institute of Oriental Studies n.a. A.E. Krymskyi of NAS of Ukraine, Cand. Sci. (History) (01001, Hrushevskiy st., 4, room 210, Kiev, Ukraine); bachman@meta.ua

  Pochekaev R.Yu.    103-120

Political Repressions in the Mongol Empire, Golden Horde and Other Turkic-Mongol States, and their Justifications (13th–16th cc.) »


R.Yu. Pochekaev

(National Research University Higher School of Economics, St. Petersburg)

In this article the author analyses the cases of political repressions in the Mongol Empire, Golden Horde and other Turkic-Mongol states of the 13th–16th centuries. Author investigates different types of repressions: against rivals during the struggle for the throne, officials who incurred the anger of monarchs, rebellious cities and their citizens.

So, the political rivals often justified their right to the throne referring to the Great Yasa of Chinggis Khan, and hence, the punishment of the vanquished rivals usually was based as well on the Chinggis Khan’s principles of the “Law and Order”: ambiguity of these principles (since the Great Yasa, as it seems, was not a written code of laws but only a system of rules and principles proclaimed by Chinggis Khan or his successors, who attributed them to him) allowed the winners to avenge their rivals following the formal legal norms. Thus, the charge of violation of the Great Yasa was a universal one allowing to solve the problem of of getting rid of a dangerous rival.

The punishment of disgraced officials was justified by other arguments that differed from charges of rebellion of the Chinggisid family members. But Chinggisid rulers also used some “standard” accusations such as treason, support of usurpers, bribery. Since in most cases such acts also contradicted to the principles of the Great Yasa (as they were interpreted by the Chinggisids), the formula “put to yasa” was frequently used in verdicts on such cases.

At last, we can also include the destruction of the resisting and insurgent cities in terms of political repressions. Reprisals against foreign cities that resisted the Mongol conquerors, was an integral part of the military strategy of terror facilitating the voluntary surrender of the following cities. In this case, the Chinggisids did not need any legal basis for the slaughter and destruction. However, in case of the rebellion of their own cities against the legitimate monarch, the latter, dealing with them accordingly, always represented his actions as the restoration of law and order.

So, despite the fact that in most of such cases repressions were result of personal decision of the monarch, or revenge, or coup d’etat, etc., we can make sure that almost all of such repressions (with rare exceptions) were presented only as a punishment of criminals, traitors, bribe-takers and so on.

Keywords: Mongol Empire, Golden Horde, Ilkhanate, Chinggisid states, political repressions, judicial proceeding, parricide, rebellion, bribery.

About the author: Roman Yulianovich Pochekaev – Head of the Department of theory and history of law and state of the National Research University Higher School of Economics in St. Petersburg, Cand. Sci. (Jurisprudence), Associate Professor (198099, Promyshlennaya st., 17, St. Peterburg, Russian Federation); ropot@mail.ru

* This article was originally presented at the International Conference “History of Mass Violence in Russia and China” (Helsinki, May 17–18, 2012) and then it has been substantially revised and supplemented.

  Maslyuzhenko D.N.    121-138

Maslyuzhenko D.N. Turko-Mongol Traditions in the “State of Nomadic Uzbeks” of Abu al-Khair Khan »


D.N. Maslyuzhenko

(Kurgan State University)

The author of this article identifies the daily and political traditions in the Khanate of Abu al-Khair, which researchers traditionally call the “State of nomadic Uzbeks”. This State was created in the south of Western Siberia in the 1430’s and annexed by military means to the land of Shiban’s (the younger brother of Batu) descendants. The overwhelming majority of researchers consider it as a Muslim State since its very foundation, substantiating their allegations by indication both on the reading of khutba in honor of Khan after he took the “throne of Sain Khan” and on the presence of the sheikhs and Sufis in his entourage.

At the same time, the authority of Abu al-Khair had the strong support of nomadic elite of more than twenty tribes. Precisely this elite, its inquiries and interests, which were advocated on the nobility councils, formed the existing political and daily traditions. These traditions reflect the preservation of Turko-Mongol customs among nomadic populations. We can find analogies of these practices in the earlier customs among the precursors of post-Golden Horde State, i.e., in the Mongol Empire and the ulus of Jochi. Traditions of the Abu al-Khair’s Khanate represented a phenomenon of cultural inertia, which were restored in the conditions of Islamization and could become the adats. This effect is particularly significant in view of the specific attitude of Sufi tariqats to the phenomena of social life.

In political terms, of particular importance among these was the restoration of the Toy and the related kurultay that could take place in accordance with the existing steppe (animals) calendar. The khans restored the ritual of robes and belts’ distribution as the main mechanism for redeployment of posts and responsibilities among the steppe aristocracy. Military tradition was also focused on samples of the previous time, which was particularly manifested in the selection of wings and avant-garde. In the course of military operations, there was the prevalent practice of magical rites known since the early Middle Ages and aimed at influencing the weather by means of the magic stone “yada” and Yadachi-sorcerers.

Keywords: nomadic Islamization, Turko-Mongol traditions, nomadic elite, Shaybanids, State of the nomadic Uzbeks, Khan Abu al-Khair.

About the author: Denis Nikolaevich Maslyuzhenko – Head of the Department of Cultural studies, Kurgan State University, Cand. Sci. (History), Associate professor (640669, Gogol st., housing 25, Kurgan, Russian Federation); denmas13@yandex.ru

  Yakubovych M.M.    139-152

Development of the Philosophical Thought in Crimea during the Golden Horde Period: Sharaf al-Qrimi »


M.M. Yakubovych

(National University of Ostroh Academy)

In most of contemporary studies on Islamic Philosophy, the main attention is concerned with the Classical Age (from the eighth up to the thirteenth century). It is worthy to mention that many late medieval Arabic sources still remain out of the real scholarly interest. In turn, the author of this article emphasizes that the philosophical and scientific heritage of the Crimean Khanate represents now a vital interest to researchers, above all, due to the fact that there was a significant flourishing of cultural life on the territory of Crimea and other regions of the Northern Black Sea in the 15th–17th centuries. Among other things, it should be paid special attention to the study of the development of “rational sciences”, including philosophical knowledge.

In this context, the author refers to the heritage of the scholar from the Golden Horde, namely Sharaf al-Qrimi (d. 1440). His life falls on a very interesting and, in general, poorly studied period in the history of the Crimea, namely, at a time when the Crimean Yurt (Qırım Yurtu) had not yet been an independent State and was a part of the Golden Horde. Creative heyday of this scientist coincided with the age of the weakening of the Golden Horde power in the Crimean yurt, which stood out in an independent State (“Khanate”, hanlığı) only in 1441, during the reign of Haji Giray (d. 1466).

The works of Sharaf al-Qrimi dedicated to the hermeneutics, provides a clear picture not only of some issues of Post-Classical Islamic thought, but also the development of Islamic knowledge in the Eastern European lands (in particular, in Crimea, which experienced the intensive inter-cultural transmission during the Golden Horde times). It is argued, that Sharaf al-Qrimi was under the influence of the Central Asian and Persian philosophical theology, inspired by the works of Abu ‘Ali ibn Sina and his followers. It is showed that in Crimean (and also early Ottoman) context Islamic Philosophy continued its development in the form of synthesis between various patterns of rationalism. Further studies in this area may show new lines of the interaction between the Crimean schools of philosophy and other part of the late medieval Islamic world.

Keywords: Crimean Khanate, Islamic law, Islamic Philosophy, Aristotelianism, Neoplatonism, Abu Hanifa School, Al-Maturidi School.

About the author: Mykhaylo Mykhaylovych Yakubovych – Associate Professor, Religious Studies and Philosophy Department, The National University of Ostroh Academy, Cand. Sci. (History) (35800, Seminarskaya st., 2, Ostroh, Rovenskaya obl., Ukraine); mykhaylo.yakubovych@oa.edu.ua

  Uli Schamiloglu    153-174

The Umdet ul-Ahbar and the Turkic Narrative Sources for the Golden Horde and the Later Golden Horde »


Uli Schamiloglu

(University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA)

This paper presents in summary form results of the author’s study of the Turkic-Muslim sources. A number of Turkic narrative sources are preserved to us from the post-Golden Horde time, i.e. period of the successor States of the Golden Horde of the 15th–18th centuries. These narrative sources (mainly chronicles) are of fundamental importance for the study of the Eurasian history in the 13th–18th centuries. Since most of these works are available only in the original Turkish, they remain inaccessible and sometimes even unknown to the main part of modern scholars. Therefore, the author provides an overview of these historical writings, together with a more detailed study of one particular work, “Umdet ul-Ahbar / Umdetul-ahbar”. He expresses the hope that this review will contribute to the integration of the Turkic sources in the study of the western Eurasian history. This article contains several examples showing how useful can be this later source for understanding the history of the ulus of Jochi in the 13th century. The author pays special attention to this source’s information both about the existence of “ruling clans (tribes)” and on the role of the Karachi beys and kurultay in the government of the ulus of Jochi and post-Golden Horde States. The author emphasizes the role of Shiban and his descendants in determination of the Jochid foreign policy, in the implementation of their conquests in the West and distribution of the uluses in Eastern Europe and, in particular, in the Crimea.

Although the later Turkic-Muslim sources require a more detailed analysis, this article represents the first pioneering step in this direction.

Keywords: Golden Horde, Later Golden Horde, Crimean Khanate, turkic narrative sources, historical literature, “Umdet ul-ahbar”, social organization in the Golden Horde, qaraçi-beys.

About the author: Uli Schamiloglu – Professor, Department of Languages and Cultures of Asia, University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA (1240 Van Hise Hall, Madison WI 53706); uschamil@wisc.edu

  Iskhakov D.M.    175-190

The Golden Horde Ethnology of Tatars: 1. The Epic and Historical “Golden Throne” (“Altyn Tәkhet”) »


D.M. Iskhakov

(Sh. Marjani Institute of History, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan)

The author of this article seeks to identify the historical origins of particular patronal place characteristic for the ulus of Jochi and later Turko-Tatar States established on its territory in the 15th–16th centuries. This patronal place was known as the “golden throne” and has been recorded by the Turko-Tatar (epics, chronicles, historical works) and some Russian sources. An overview of historical sources reveals that according to the Turko-Tatar traditions of the 16th–18th centuries, the “golden throne” was a place, where the ruler (Khan, king) was sitting in the Golden Horde and at the post-Horde political space. The author of this article emphasizes the important fact: in historical sources the “golden throne” was always associated with the place of enthronement of the Tatar ruler. As a result of detailed analysis of the available historical material, the author found that the often mentioned “golden throne” existed not only in the ulus of Jochi, but throughout the Mongol Empire. Moreover, further analysis of the available historical material (including a comparison with information contained in the parallel Persian, Chinese, and Latin sources) showed that the “golden throne” was connected to another symbol of power, common in all Chinggisid States and recorded by a number of historical sources, that is, with special tent (yurt) known as the “Great Golden horde”. This tent together with the throne seat symbolized the focus of the khan authority in the Mongol Empire and the subsequent Chinggisid States.

Keywords: throne, patronal place, enthronement, golden throne, golden tent, center of power.

About the author: Damir Mavlyaveevich Iskhakov – Chief Research Fellow, Sh.Marjani Institute of History, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan, Dr. Sci. (History) (420014, Kremlin, entrance 5, Kazan, Russian Federation); monitoring_vkt@mail.ru

  Jukka Korpela    191-206

Baptized and Not Baptized Nemcy in the Muscovite Society of the 16th century »


Jukka Korpela

(University of Eastern Finland)

The east European trade of slaves was big business. It had long roots at least from the age of Vikings and thousands of prisoners were transported yearly from Crimea and Kazan’ – Astrakhan to the markets of Central Asia, Asia Minor and Mediterranean area and finally even to India. The wars of the 15th and 16th centuries may have increased the number of northern slaves in the Muscovite – Volga markets.

The slaves of the trade were divided into two main categories. First there were ordinary cheap manpower and secondly extraordinary cases which were bought for the harems for noble families and as luxury.

The point of this article is to illuminate the difference between baptized and unbaptized persons in the connection of the slave trade. It is namely curious that this religious aspect was stressed so seriously, and therefore it requests for an explanation.

This phenomenon belongs only to the late 16th century. The state formation had created the Baptism as a criterium for the subject of ruler and this as a side product the protection against slave trade. From the author’s point of view one should pay attention to:

1) The slave trade of blond (nemci) girls must have been a big issue already early, because the administration building did not of course form the request.

2) Earlier the religion of the trading objects was a concern of the Church but not of the ruler. When the new economic thinking created an idea of realm economy, the people living in the realm became to means of production and tax payers. This required to limit their kidnapping away.

3) Because the religion became to be a criterium in state formation it became accidentally also a qualification of slave trade.

4) The traders did not take otherwise care of religious issues in this connection, and therefore the illegal trade may have continued also with baptized persons.

Keywords: Eastern European trade of slaves, Muscovite – Volga markets, «nemcy», baptized and unbaptized slaves, realm economy.

About the author: Jukka Korpela – Dr. h.c., Head of Department of Geographical and Historical Studies, University of Eastern Finland, Ph.D. (History), Professor (80101, Yliopistokatu 2, Joensuu, Finland); jukka.korpela@uef.fi


  Abu Bakr Qalandar.    207-214

Qalandar-name. Chapter 2. “Praise and blessing upon Muhammad Mustafa” »


Abu Bakr Qalandar

The present fragment contains the translated continuation of a medieval poetic text “Qalandar-name” written by the Crimean Sufi author Abu Bakr Qalandar. This fragment contains the second chapter devoted to praising (Salawat) the Prophet Muhammad, after which the poet will glorify his righteous caliphs (al-Khulafa al-rashidun). As it appears from the author’s praises, he was a follower of Sunni Islam and, at the same time, a representative of the Sufi order (tariqa). Titles and names that Abu Bakr Kalandar uses in his chanting of Muhammad, are very familiar both to researchers of the Islamic religion and ordinary Muslims. He calls the Prophet the Lord (Sayyid) of both worlds, Elect, Light, Leader of all the prophets and saints. The author mentions some famous miracles of the Messenger of Allah, such as the night journey (Isra) and ascension to the seventh heaven (Mi’raj), the moon’s splitting and inanimate objects’ speaking. He also makes an allusion to the mystical interpretation of the Qur’an in relation to the hair of the Prophet. The Persian text is translated by Milyausha Ismagilova, a postgraduate student. Translation edition and comments are supplied by Damir Shagaviyev, Head of the Department of History of Public Thought and Islamic Studies of the Sh.Marjani Institute of History, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan (Kazan).

* Continuation of the article. See beginning of the article in: Golden Horde Review, 2014, no. 2(4), pp.243–252.


  Sabitov Zh.M.    215-227

Review on the B.A. Muratov’s monograph “Ethnogenesis of the Bashkirs: Historiography and Contemporary Research” »


Zh.M. Sabitov

(L.N. Gumilev Eurasian National University)

The author of this review examines four main types of errors contained in the B.A. Muratov’s book “Ethnogenesis of the Bashkirs: Historiography and Contemporary Research”.

  1. Factual errors. The author often makes factual errors by inventing some facts or ideas, which he attributes to certain researchers.
  2. Methodological errors. An improper use of the population genetics methods has led the author of this monograph to incorrect conclusions. The author does not use at all such methods as multidimensional scaling, calculation of genetic distances, AMOVA, cluster analysis, etc. In turn, the author incorrectly uses such methods as the construction of phylogenetic networks and the allocation of close haplotypes based on networks of clusters. The author has not made a selection of modal haplotype (haplotype of the founder). He made a lot of mistakes in calculating TMRCA (the lifetime of the first common ancestor) based on genealogical and evolutionary rates of mutations. One of the main error is the small sample size for the study of Bashkir clans (n=45). Therefore, the conclusions drawn from such a small sample, are poorly reasoned.
  3. Historical fantasy. For example, B.A. Muratov quite unreasonably hypothesizes about the genetic connection of the Bashkir tribe Burzyan with the Mongol tribe Kiyat-Bordjigin. He also put forward unsubstantiated hypotheses about the genetic connection of the same Bashkir tribe Burzyan with Kurds, Ossetians-Digorians, Berendeys. At the same time. Muratov, naturally, did not provide any genetic evidence (belonging to a common terminal SNP-marker).
  4. Grammatical mistakes. The main thesis of the B.A. Muratov’s book sounds like: the Bashkirs are (certain) “Turanians”. The main mistake here is the identification of SNP-marker Z2123 with the ethno-religious category of “Turan”. This identification is not methodologically correct as social constructs and genetic markers are different in nature of their appearance, functioning and development. Thus, the mixing of genetic markers and ethno-religious is not methodologically correct when reconstructing history.

Keywords: B.A. Muratov, polymorphism, Y-chromosomes, ethnogenesis, Bashkirs, methods of population genetics.

About the author: Zhaksylyk Muratovich Sabitov – Associate Professor, Political Science Department, L.N. Gumilev Eurasian National University, Ph.D. (Philosophy) (010008, Munaytpasov st., building 5, Astana, Kazakhstan); babasan@yandex.ru


  Judith Kolbas    228-237

New Aspects on the IL Khans International Conference in Ulaan Baatar, Mongolia, 21–23 May 2014 »


Judith Kolbas

(Cambridge University, UK)

A special conference held in Ulaan Baatar, Mongolia, explored new aspects on the Il Khans. It was jointly sponsored by the Mongolian National University and the University of Indiana, Bloomington, USA, from 21 to 23 May of 2014. Twenty-one invited speakers presented topics in various panels that each had a unifying theme. The entire event was extremely well organized by Dashdondog Bayarsaihkan (Ph.D. from the University of Oxford) on the faculty of the History Department of the Mongolian National University. There was, indeed, much new information on imperial Mongol activity in Greater Iran, and the proceedings will be published in Mongolia and abroad.

Several important trends in current research on the Mongols in Iran became strikingly apparent during the conference. The first was that the standard texts that have been relied upon for so long, such as Rashid al-Din, Juvayni and Wassaf, need much more critical analysis than has occurred before. These works sometimes disagree with other material from more local or overlooked sources such as from the Nestorian community in Irbil, the Armenian hagiographies, the position of Anatolia and Afghanistan within the Il Khanate and finally diplomatic correspondence. The second development is that all the sources can fruitfully be analyzed more carefully from reviewing Rashid al-Din’s records to al-Qalqashandi’s terminology. Thirdly, although the period is richer in sources than almost any other previous era, even more material is available than has been normally considered.

With this significant increase of source material, critiques of the previously common references and analyses of forces below the military and court levels, this conference exhibited the vibrant expansion of Il Khanid studies in its own right, so long an adjunct to regional studies of other states.

Keywords: International conference, Mongolian National University, University of Indiana, new aspects on the Il Khans, critical analysis of the sources, Il Khanid studies.

About the author: Judith Kolbas – Professor, Member of the Central Asian Numismatic Institute, Cambridge University, Ph.D. (Cambridge, UK). ca.numismatic@gmail.com

  Maslyuzhenko D.N., Tataurov S.F.    237-243

The Second National Research Conference “History, Economics and Culture of the Medieval Turko-Tatar States of Western Siberia” (Kurgan, 17–18 April 2014) »


D.N. Maslyuzhenko

(Kurgan State University)

S.F. Tataurov

(Omsk branch of Institute of archaeology and ethnography, SB RAS)

The article summarizes the results of the Second National Research Conference “History, Economics and Culture of the Medieval Turko-Tatar States of Western Siberia”, which was held in Kurgan on 17th–18th April 2014. 38 researchers from Russia, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine participated at the Conference.

The Conference was focused on several topics. On the first day, the Conference started with the issues of the Shiban’s ulus history and a role of the Shibanids in the history of the Golden Horde, including the issue of the borders of these lands, the ulus of Jochi’s place in its administrative structure, the participation of representatives of the dynasty in the events of the Great Zamyatnya (i.e, the Great Distemper) and strives of the 1420’s. There were also discussed the ethnic and political processes in the Tyumen and Siberian Yurt. Considerable attention was paid to the Turkization of the Western Siberian population and formation of various groups of the Siberian Tatars. Researchers have noted the limitations of the source base of the late-medieval history of the region and the need for a comprehensive approach to the research involving experts in the fields of history, archaeology, ethnography, anthropology, linguistics. A separate debate was held on the role of the Nogai and Bukhara factor in the history of the Kuchum Siberian khanate.

On the second day, there were discussed various aspects of the Turkic-Tatar peoples’ occurrence from the Ural-Irtysh interfluve to the Russian State. There were presented reports both on the policy and destiny of the Kuchum descendants and legal and military aspects of the Tatar yurtes’ subordination. There was held a discussion about two versions of the Ichkinski Tatar ethnogenesis as a special group of the Tatar population of the region. Thereupon, the conference participants called for a cautious stance on the use of ethnic reconstructions in Turkic history and their use in the construction of modern inter-ethnic relations in Russia. There were also presentations on issues of spiritual and material culture of the Tatar peoples of Western Siberia. Considerable attention was paid to the Islamization of the Turkish-Tatar groups in Western Siberia and the existence of Islamic institutions in the region by under Russian power.

Keywords: scientific conference, medieval history, Turkic-Tatar State of Western Siberia, Islamization of the Turkish-Tatar groups.

About the authors: Denis Nikolaevich Maslyuzhenko – Head of the Department of Cultural studies, Kurgan State University, Cand. Sci. (History), Associate professor, (640669, Russia, Kurgan, Gogol st., the house 25); denmas13@yandex.ru

Sergei Filippovich Tataurov – Head of the sector of archaeology, Omsk branch of Institute of archaeology and ethnography, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Cand. Sci. (History), Associate professor (644010, Russia, Omsk, Karl Marks Avenue, 15/1); tatsf2008@rambler.ru

  Mirgaleev I.M.    243-246

International Research Conference “The Turkic-Muslim World: Identity, Heritage and Perspectives of Study” dedicated to the 80th anniversary of Professor M.A. Usmanov »


I.М. Mirgaleev

(Sh.Marjani Institute of History, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan)

On 27th–28th May, 2014 in Kazan was held International Research Conference “The Turkic-Muslim World: Identity, Heritage and Perspectives of Study” dedicated to the 80th anniversary of Professor M.A.Usmanov. The conference was organized by the Institute of International Relations, History, and Oriental Studies of the Kazan Federal University; Sh.Marjani Institute of History of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan; N.I.Lobachevsky Scientific Library; National Library of the Republic of Tatarstan; Russian Historical Society; Society of Russian Orientalists; “Zhyen” Foundation for the Preservation and Development of the Tatar language and culture; Yunus Emre Institute (Turkey).

The conference was divided into six thematic sections: “Personality in History: Academic and Social Heritage of M.A. Usmanov”. “The Oriental Archeology in Russia and Problems of Source Study”. “Turkic-Muslim Legacy of the Golden Horde”. “The Tatar Theological Thought and Muslim Spiritual and Political Institutions in Russia”. “Islam in the Middle Ages and Modern Times: Problems of Source Study”. “Islamic Bibliographic Tradition and Tatar Literature”.

About the author: Il’nur Midkhatovich Mirgaleev – Head of the Usmanov Center for Research on the Golden Horde History, Sh.Marjani Institute of History, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan, Cand. Sci. (History) (420014, Kremlin, entrance 5, Kazan, Russian Federation); dilnur1976@mail.ru