2018, vol. 6, no. 2. Kradin N.N.
2018, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 224-237
N.N. Kradin 1,2
1 Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology,
Far-Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Vladivostok, Russian Federation
2 Institute for Mongolian, Buddhist and Tibetan Studies,
Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Ulan-Ude, Russian Federation
Abstract: In the Transbaikalia territory, unique archaeological sites belonging to the Mongol Empire period are found – the town of Khirkhira and the palace of Kondui. They were already known as early as the 18th century and were excavated in the mid-20th century by S.V. Kiselev. The summarized research results were published in a book, “Ancient Mongolian Towns” (1965). The results of recent investigations open up the new prospects for research.
Purpose – the article is an attempt to ascertain who the initiator was of construction of Mongol Empire towns of the Transbaikalia territory.
Research materials – summarized results of the archaeological excavations of the towns and manor complexes on the Transbaikalia, along with published written sources on the Mongolian history.
Research novelty comprises the statement of results of the new archaeological studies as well as in the localization of the territories in Transbaikalia and contiguous zones of the Inner Mongolia (Hailar) assigned to the brothers of Chinggis Khan, Qasar and Tämügä (Otchi Noyan), and their descendants.
Research results indicate that the urbanization processes in the Transbaikalia territory of the Mongol Empire are related to key times in the establishment and rise of the Chinggis Khan’s Empire. The towns appeared here in the 13th century and likely persisted into the 14th century. The town of Khirkhira is traditionally interpreted to be the residence of Yesünggü, son of Qasar. The mention of his name on the “Chinggis’s stone” is the rationale behind this assertion. The written sources afford opportunity to clarify some new, previously unknown details of his biography and the dating of the stele.
Keywords: Mongol empire, Chinggis Khan, Qasar, Yesünggü, Khirkhira, Kondui, Chinggis stele
For citation: Kradin N.N. Who Was the Builder of Mongol Towns in Transbaikalia? Zolotoordynskoe obozrenie=Golden Horde Review. 2018, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 224–237. DOI: 10.22378/2313-6197.2018-6-2.224-237
Acknowledgments: I would like to thank my colleagues from Transbaikalia team – S. Baksheev, Dr. S. Baksheeva, Prof. A. Kharinsky, Dr. E. Kovychev, Dr. S. Prokopets. My gratitude to architect Prof. V. Tkachev for the picture of Kondui reconstruction. And personal thanks to Dr. U. Brosseder (Bonn University) and Prof. N. Shiraishi (Niigata University) for the help in the carbon dating.
* This study was supported by the grant of the Russian Scientific foundation № 14-18-01165 “Towns of the mediaeval empires of Far East”.
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About the author: Nikolay N. Kradin – Dr. Sci. (History), Prof., Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Acting Director of the Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnology, Far-Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (89, Pushkinskaya Str., Vladivostok 690001, Russian Federation), and Head of Laboratory of archaeology, ethnology, and anthropology, Institute for Mongolian, Buddhist and Tibetan Studies, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (6, Sakhyanovoy Str., Ulan-Ude 664047, Russian Federation). E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received March 23, 2018 Accepted for publication May 25, 2018
Published online June 29, 2018