2021, vol. 9, no. 4. Zeleneev Yu.A., Izmailov I.L., Nedashkovsky L.F.

2021, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 912-922

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22378/2313-6197.2021-9-4.912-922


Yu.A. Zeleneev 1, I.L. Izmailov 2, L.F. Nedashkovsky 3

1 Mari State University
Yoshkar-Ola, Russian Federation

2 Marjani Institute of History of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences
Kazan, Russian Federation

3 Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University
Kazan, Russian Federation

Research objectives: To consider the creative path and main views of L.T. Yablonsky, as well as his influence on ideas about the ethnic history of the Golden Horde population and theoretical problems of ethnogenesis.
Research materials: The authors of the article were based on numerous publications by L.T. Yablonsky, as well as personal impressions from meetings with the researcher on expeditions and at academic conferences.
Results and novelty of the research: The authors consider the formation of L.T. Yablonsky as a unique specialist who combined archaeological training and professional study of physical anthropology. This allowed him to draw important conclusions about the formation of the Golden Horde population. Later, he resorted to this method to study the early nomads of the Aral Sea region and the South Urals. His works became an event in the research field, since they positively differed from others not only by an interdisciplinary approach to the problem under study – at the junction of archaeology and ethnogenetics – but also by the wide use of anthropological materials. Prior to these works, all information about the population of the Jochid ulus was fragmentary and unsystematic, and he was the very researcher who first connected the data of paleoanthropology and the analysis of the burial rite in medieval burial grounds. He proved the fact that the Golden Horde population consisted of mixed population groups, and identified those population groups that, in his opinion, came from Central Asia. L.T. Yablonsky attached great importance to the methodology of research on ethnogenesis and ethnic history. He advocated an integrated scientific approach to their study and emphasized the huge role of paleoanthropology and archaeology in solving ethnogenetic problems. In his opinion, the rapid divergence of various scientific disciplines – ethnology, archaeology, physical anthropology, and genetics – was the main problem that hindered the development of scientific ethnogenetic research. L.T. Yablonsky, therefore, believed that expanding comprehensive research would help solve this problem.

Keywords: archaeology, physical anthropology, Golden Horde, ethnogenesis, early nomads, Muslim necropolises of the Volga region, Islam in the Golden Horde, racial science, historical genetics

For citation: Zeleneev Yu.A., Izmailov I.L., Nedashkovsky L.F. “The Development of the Ideas of Scholars of Previous Generations Will Be the Best Monument for Them”: In Memory of Leonid Teodorovich Yablonsky (1950–2016). Zolotoordynskoe obozrenie=Golden Horde Review. 2021, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 912–922. DOI: 10.22378/2313-6197.2021-9-4.912-922 (In Russian)


  1. Yablonsky L.T. Exploring the medieval necropolis at the settlement near the village of Selitrennoye. Field Research of the Institute of Ethnography: 1976. Moscow: Nauka, 1978, pp. 180–186. (In Russian)
  2. Yablonsky L.T. On the ethnic connection of burials with a niche in a fourteenth-century Muslim necropolis at the Vodyanskoe settlement. Problems of Ethnography and Ethnic Anthropology. Moscow: Nauka, Glavnaya redaktsiya vostochnoy literatury, 1978, pp. 216–229. (In Russian)
  3. Yablonsky L.T. On the paleodemography of the population of the medieval city of Saray Batu (Selitrennoe settlement). Soviet Ethnography. 1980, no. 1, pp. 142–148. (In Russian)
  4. Yablonsky L.T. Muslim necropolis of the Vodyanskoe settlement. Soviet Archaeo­logy. 1980, no. 1, pp. 90–105. (In Russian)
  5. Yablonsky L.T. The Population of the Medieval Cities of the Volga Region (based on materials from Muslim burial grounds). PhD Abstract. Moscow, 1980. 28 p. (In Russian)
  6. Yablonsky L.T. Mongols in the cities of the Golden Horde (based on materials from Muslim necropolises). Anthropological Problems of the Ancient and Modern Population of Soviet Asia. Novosibirsk: Nauka, 1986, pp. 6–27. (In Russian)
  7. Gerasimova M.M., Rud’ N.M., Yablonsky L.T. Anthropology of the Ancient and Medieval Population of Eastern Europe. Moscow: Nauka, 1987. 251 p. (In Russian)
  8. Yablonsky L.T. Necropolis of Bolghar. Bolghar City: Essays on History and Culture. Moscow: Nauka, 1987, pp. 124–142. (In Russian)
  9. Yablonsky L.T. Physico-anthropological aspect of the formation of the ethnosocial organism of the nobility (on the example of the Golden Horde). Elite and Ethnos of the Middle Ages. Moscow: IVI RAN, 1995, pp. 120–126. (In Russian)
  10. Yablonsky L.T. Archaeology and scythology in ethnohistorical reconstruction. Russian Archaeology. 2003, no. 4, pp. 71–79. (In Russian)
  11. Yablonsky L.T. Carefully! Ethnogenetic research in modern Russia. Medieval Archaeology of the Eurasian Steppes. Proceedings of the Founding Meeting of the International Congress. Kazan, 14–16 February 2007. Kazan: Marjani Institute of History of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences, 2007, vol. 1, pp. 38–42. (In Russian)
  12. Yablonsky L.T. On the paleoanthropology of the medieval population of the Volga region. The Steppes of Europe in the Middle Ages, Vol. 6: Golden Horde Time. Donetsk: DonNU, 2008, pp. 269–286. (In Russian)
  13. Yablonsky L.T. Prokhorovka: At the Origins of Sarmatian Archaeology. Moscow: TAUS, 2010. 384 p. (In Russian)
  14. Yablonsky L.T. Physical Anthropology: Course of Lectures. Yoshkar-Ola: Mar. gos. un-t, 2010. 269 p. (In Russian)
  15. Yablonsky L.T. Anthropological characteristics of the population of the Jochid ulus. History of Tatars since the Most Ancient Times. In Seven Volumes, Vol. 3: The Ulus of Jochi (Golden Horde). From the thirteenth to mid-fifteenth century. Kazan: Marjani Institute of History of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences, 2009, pp. 365–375. (In Russian)
  16. Yablonsky L.T. Carefully! Ethnic archaeology (matches are not toys for children). Proceedings of the Seventeenth Ural Archaeological Meeting “Cultural Areas, Archaeological Cultures, and Chronology”. Ufa: Bashkirskiy gosudarstvennyy pedagogicheskiy universitet, 2010, pp. 52–63. (In Russian)
  17. Yablonsky L.T. From the anthropology of Bunak and Debets, the historical archaeology of Alekseev to the bioarcheology of Jane Buikstra: the way where? Anthropology Bulletin. 2009, no. 17, pp. 14–19. (In Russian)
  18. Yablonsky L.T. A crisis in the concept of ethnogenesis? Anthropology Bulletin. 2011, no. 19, pp. 96–103. (In Russian)
  19. Yablonsky L.T. The theory of ethnogenesis and its falsification in modern Russia. Falsification of Historical Sources and Construction of Ethnocratic Myths. Moscow: Institut arkheologii RAN, 2011, pp. 85–94. (In Russian)
  20. Yablonsky L.T. et al. Influences of the Achaemenid Culture in the Southern Cis-Ural Region (from the fifth to the third century BC). Moscow: Taus, 2012. Vol. 1. 671 p.; Vol. 2. 466 p. (In Russian)
  21. Yablonsky L.T. Gold of the Sarmatian Leaders. Elite Necropolis Filippovka 1 (based on materials from excavations in 2004–2009): Collection Catalog. Moscow: Institut arkheologii Rossiyskoy akademii nauk, 2013. Book. 1. 232 p. (In Russian)
  22. Yablonsky L.T. The Saka in the Oxus Delta (theory and practice of ethnogenetic research). Moscow: Novoe vremya, 2015. 310 p. (In Russian)
  23. Yablonsky L.T. New archaeological data on the Achaemenid influences in the South Urals. Ancient History Bulletin. 2016, vol. 76, no. 3, pp. 744–766. (In Russian)

About the authors: Yuri A. Zeleneev – Dr. Sci. (History), Head of the Center for Archaeological and Ethnological Research, Head of the Department, Associate Professor of the Department of General History, Mari State University (8, Ryabinin Str., Yoshkar-Ola 424000, Russian Federation). E-mail: zeleneev@marsu.ru

Iskander L. Izmailov – Dr. Sci. (History), Leading Research Fellow, Usmanov Center for Research on the Golden Horde and Tatar Khanates, Marjani Institute of History of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences (7A, Baturin Str., Kazan 420111, Russian Federation); ORCID: 0000-0003-2165-2916. E-mail: ismail@inbox.ru

Leonard F. Nedashkovsky – Dr. Sci. (History), Professor of the Department of Archaeology and General History of the Institute of International Relations of the Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University (18, Kremlevskaya Str., Kazan 420008, Russian Federation); ORCID: 0000-0002-7453-9960. E-mail: Leonard.Nedashkovsky@kpfu.ru

Received  August 2, 2021   Accepted for publication  November 29, 2021
Published  Online December 29, 2021