2021, vol. 9, no. 4. Moiseev M.V.

2021, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 791-806

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22378/2313-6197.2021-9-4.791-806


M.V. Moiseev
Museum Association “Museum of Moscow”
Moscow, Russian Federation
Novosibirsk State University
Novosibirsk, Russian Federation
Moscow Pedagogical State University
Moscow, Russian Federation

Abstract: Objective: To study the monuments of diplomatic correspondence from the sixteenth century as a source of political thought in the successor states of the Golden Horde.
Research materials: The messages of Crimean khans, sultans, representatives of ruling groups, Nogai beks and mirzas preserved in translated copies in the ambassadorial books of the Muscovite state.
Novelty of the research: For the first time ever, the diplomatic documents of the Crimean khanate and the Nogai Horde are involved in the reconstruction of their period’s corpus of political ideas. Considering the question of the authorship of messages, we proceed with the concept of S.M. Kashtanov about “technical authorship”, in which the authorship is understood as the collective work of rulers, courtiers, bureaucrats, and technical workers on the creation of a letter.
Research results: The application of the concept of “corporate authorship” has made it possible to show that diplomatic messages were always a product of some convention possible within the elite that were involved in the development of foreign policy. Translators played an important role in shaping the political language. The messages of the khans, sultans, beks, and mirzas of the successor states of the Golden Horde contain some ideas that can help us to outline the political ideology. Central to it is the thesis of the exclusive right to power of the Chinggisids who could get power only with the general consent of the “political people”. “Evil” and “good” were the most important concepts of thought in the successor states. “Evil” was understood as any change in the established order, and “good” as its preservation. Thus, conservatism and the desire to fix the rituals of power and management practices that had developed earlier in the era of the Golden Horde were the most important concepts for political life in the successor states. This attitude led to the preservation of earlier concepts and terminological language, something which was reflected in the practice of diplomacy when the elusive reality of former power influenced ambassadorial ceremony and the form of messages.

Keywords: post-Horde studies, diplomatic correspondence, ambassadorial books, Tatar states

For citation: Moiseev M.V. Diplomatic Materials of the sixteenth century as a Source of Political Thought in the Successor States of the Golden Horde (To the Formulation of a Research Problem). Zolotoordynskoe obozrenie=Golden Horde Review. 2021, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 791–806. DOI: 10.22378/2313-6197.2021-9-4.791-806 (In Russian)


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About the author: Maksim V. Moiseev – Cand. Sci. (History), Head of the Sector of the Department “Museum of Moscow’s Archaeology”, Museum Association “Museum of Moscow” (2, Zubovskiy Blvd., Moscow 119021, Russian Federation); Senior Research Fellow of the Scientific and Educational Center “Legacy”, Novosibirsk State University (2, Pirogov Str., Novosibirsk 630090, Russian Federation); Associate Professor, Moscow State Pedagogical University (1, building 1, Malaya Pirogovskaya Str., Moscow 119991, Russian Federation); ORCID: 0000-0003-0421-8982, ResearcherID: E-1622-2016. E-mail: maksi-moisee@yandex.ru

Received  August 26, 2021   Accepted for publication  November 25, 2021
Published Online December 29, 2021