№ 2 2015



  Timothy May

Mongol Warfare in the Pre-Dissolution Period »


Timothy May
(University of North Georgia)

Although the Mongols used many of the tactics and strategies that steppe nomads had used for centuries, the Mongols refined steppe warfare so that this style of warfare reached its apogee during the Mongol Empire. Furthermore, the Mongols developed a style of warfare that made them possibly the greatest military force in history. This work examines several facets of the pre-dissolution period (1200–1260). With the dissolution of the Mongol Empire, Mongol warfare once again changed. In some areas it remained complex while in others it regressed to traditional forces of steppe warfare, still potent but not as effective as the pre-dissolution period.

Keywords: steppe warfare, archery, armor, siege warfare, weapons.

About the author: Timothy May – Associate Dean of the College of Arts & Letters and Professor of Central Eurasian History, University of North Georgia, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Ph.D. (History) (University of North Georgia, 82 College Circle, Dahlonega, GA 30597, USA); Timothy.may@ung.edu

  Mayorov A.V.

The Final Stage of Mongol Invasion of Europe: A Military Force and Secret Diplomacy (2) »


A.V. Mayorov 
(Faculty of History, St. Petersburg State University)

The paper analyzes the sources of information on the direct contact of the Emperor Frederick II with the Mongols before the attack of the latter on Europe, the persistent rumors of his collusion with the invaders, who came to blow mainly to the enemies of Frederick, the refusal of the Emperor of an armed clash with the Tatars, the refusal to participate in the Crusade prepared by the German prelates against the Tatars, but instead – a withdrawal of the imperial troops in Italy and the siege of Rome in order to force the pope to recognize the supremacy of the Emperor, the sudden retreat of the Tartars themselves from the German border and the abandonment of the original plans for the conquest of Germany, unexpected counteraction against Frederick of the German prelates who had been previously loyal to the Emperor and who accused him of a serious crime against the Church and the whole of Christianity. The author concludes that the Emperor Frederick and the leaders of the Western Mongol campaign were associated with secret mutual obligations. Many of his contemporaries were aware of the Emperor’s secret contacts with the Tartars (Albert von Beheim, Matthew Paris, and others.). The author analyzes the information and is trying to separate the elements of political propaganda from the established facts. The Emperor’s conspiracy with the Tatar leaders is indicated both by direct evidence and numerous indirect information analyzed in the article. On the one hand, the Emperor did everything possible to avoid a direct military confrontation with the Tatars and disrupt plans of his supporters in Germany to combat the invaders. On the other hand, the Tatar impact in Europe fell entirely on the Frederick’s enemies who took the side of the pope in the latter’s conflict with Emperor. As a result of the Tatar invasion of Europe position of the Emperor in his confrontation with the Roman church greatly strengthened. This change in the balance of power obviously angered the church prelates and the subsequent rebellion of the German Bishops against Frederick provoked long civil war in Germany.

Keywords: Emperor Frederick II, Pope Gregory IX, Batu khan, Crusade against the Tatars.

About the author: Alexander Vyacheslavovic Mayorov – Professor, Head of the Department of Museology, Faculty of History, St. Petersburg State University, Dr. Sci. (History) (199034, Mendeleevskaya Liniya, 5, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation); a.v.maiorov@gmail.com

* Continuation. See the beginning in: Golden Horde Review. 2015. №. 1. P. 68–94.

  Sabitov Zh.M.

Political History of the Ulus of Jochi in 1256–1263 »


 Zh.M. Sabitov
(L.N. Gumilev Eurasian National University)

The article examines a number of issues of the Golden Horde political development in 1256–1263. In particular, the author considers the circumstances of the Sartaq’s death and presents his own position regarding the death of Borakchin khatun. The author assumes the stance over the death of Ulagchi in the summer of 1259, around the same time as the death of kaghan Möngke. As a result, Berke came to power. On the kurultai, Berke was able to defeat Tuda-Mengu, a candidate supported by Borakchin khatun. The author presents his own identification of the “Tatar tsar Kutluby” mentioned in Russian chronicles in 1259–1262. The article contains a clarification of the chronology of the Berke’s coming to power in the Golden Horde. The author suggested that the two grandsons of Chagatai (Baiju and Suntay) served Berke because of his confrontation with Algu. The author identifies four reasons that influenced the Hulagu’s decision to start a war against Berke. The first reason was the Kublai’s promise to convey all conquered lands to Hulagu and his offspring. The second reason was allied relations with Algu, the ruler of Chaghataid ulus, who was inclined to military action against Berke and Arik-Boke. The third reason was Berke’s requirements regarding his share in the conquered lands. The fourth reason was potential support of the Hulagu’s claims to the Golden Horde throne by the side of Borakchin. Hulagu started a war against Berke, but the war between Algu and Arik-Boke as well as exposure and punishment of Borakchin, led to the Hulagu’s defeat in the war. Starting with 1260, the Egyptian rulers tried to establish diplomatic relations with Berke, but Berke sent the first letter to the Egyptian authorities only in May 1263, 5 months after the victory over Hulagu. This was due to the Berke’s fear of remaining alone against the coalition of Mongol uluses. The author also proposes his own identitication of Berke’s associates. Furthermore, the author believes that the uprising in Rus’ in 1262 was directed against the Golden Horde and not against the Empire.

Keywords: Golden Horde, Berke, Ulagchi, Borakchin, Hulagu, Möngke.

About the author: Zhaksylyk Muratovich Sabitov – Associate Professor, Political Science Department, L.N. Gumilev Eurasian National University, Ph.D. (Philosophy) (010008, Munaytpasov st., building 5, Astana, Kazakhstan); babasan@yandex.ru

  Aleksandar Uzelac.

War and Peace in the Pontic Steppes (1300–1302) »

War and Peace in the Pontic Steppes (1300–1302)

Aleksandar Uzelac
(Institute of History, Belgrade)

This paper discusses events in the Pontic steppes after the death of Noghai and efforts of khan Tokhta aimed at the reorganization of the right wing of the Ulus of Juchi. The political instability, bloody conflicts among Noghai’s sons, as well as conspiracies and revolts in which the khan’s closest relatives also participated had grave demographic and economic consequences in the region lying between the Dnieper and Danube rivers. More than two years passed before Tokhta finally managed to establish the presence of central authority, while dealing with another important task at the same time – assertion of the Tatar supremacy in the lands bordering the Golden Horde.

Keywords: Golden Horde, Ulus of Juchi, Noghai, Tokhta, Chaka, Bulgaria, center – periphery, internal conflicts.

About the author: AleksandarUzelac – Research Associate, Institute of History, Belgrade, Ph.D. (History) (Kneza Mihaila 36/II, 11000, Belgrade, Serbia); aleksandar.uzelac@iib.ac.rs

  Mirgaleev I.M., Sayfetdinova E.G.

Information of “Tarikh-i Kashgar” on the Golden Horde »


I.M. Mirgaleev, E.G. Sayfetdinova

(Sh.Marjani Institute of History,
Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan)

The authors of this article consider an anonymous writing written in the Eastern Turkistan. This work was discovered in Tashkent in 1902 and was provisionally named “Tarikh-i Kashgar” by V.V. Bartold. Unfortunately, this work has not been fully studied despite the fact that it has been well known to the specialists. “Tarikh-i Kashgar” is written in the Turkic language similar to the language of many medieval literary works of the Golden Horde period. This work has never been translated into Russian in full, though already in 1969, an excerpt from “Tarikh-i Kashgar” was published in the collection of “Materials on the History of the Kazakh Khanates of the 15th–18th centuries”. “Tarikh-Kashgar” consists of 52 chapters. This article contains the transcription and translation of the 25th chapter on Jochi khan and his descendants.

Keywords: Jochi khan, Jochids, Golden Horde, Tarikh-i Kashgar.

About the authors: Il’nur Midkhatovich Mirgaleev – Head of the Usmanov Center for Research on the Golden Horde and Tatar Khanates, Sh.Marjani Institute of History, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan, Cand. Sci. (History) (420014, Kremlin, entrance 5, Kazan, Russian Federation); dilnur1976@mail.ru

Elmira Gadelzyanovna Sayfetdinova – Senior Research Fellow, Usmanov Center for Research on the Golden Horde and Tatar Khanates, Sh.Marjani Institute of History, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan, Cand. Sci. (History) (420014, Kremlin, entrance 5, Kazan, Russian Federation); аdulya2@yandex.ru

  Ihsan Fazlioğlu.

The First Mathematical Book in the Golden Horde State: A Masterpiece of Computational Mathematics (“et-Tuhfe fî ilmi’l-hisâb”) (2) »


Ihsan Fazlioğlu

(Istanbul Medeniyet University)

The Turkish author Ihsan Fazlioğlu presents to attention of readers the third part of the article “A Masterpiece of Computational Mathematics” (“et-Tuhfe fî ilmi’l-hisâb”). The author of this article presents the first example of an established scientific activity in the Golden Horde, which began before Janibek khan, during the reign of Uzbek khan. The work written in the Golden Horde on a mathematical topic occupies a special place because of the information contained therein. This treatise shows that the scientific activity in the Golden Horde, which began with the conversion to Islam, brought results in a short time and laid the foundations for “breakthroug” during the reign of Janibek khan.

The author examines this composition from a historical perspective. The Computational book “et-Tuhfe fî ilmi’l-hisâb”, whose author is unknown, was handed during the reign of Uzbek Khan (1313–1342) to the ruler of the Crimean ulus of the Golden Horde Ebul-Muzaffer Giyaseddin Tuluktemir bey. After mentioning the distinguishing features of the work, the author pays particular attention to the definition of numbers, which is attributed to Muhammad b. Musa al-Khwarizmi and which, at the moment, is not recorded elsewhere. The author analyzes the formula of approximate values of square and cube roots of irrational numbers proposed by Muhammad al-Khwarizmi, Abdulkadir al-Baghdadi, and the teacher of the author, Saduruddin al-Farazi.

This part examines issues such as numbers and their characteristics, approximate values of square and cube roots of irrational numbers, the square and cube root of irrational numbers. Analysis of the works show that Islamic mathematics in the Golden Horde developed to a serious level.

Keywords: Golden Horde, Uzbek khan, mathematics, algebra, Dasht-i Kipchak, Islam.

About the author: Ihsan Fazlioğlu – Istanbul Medeniyet University, member of the Scientific Council of the Turkish Historical Society, Professor, Ph.D. (Philosophy) (34700, Ünalan Mah., No. 98, Üsküdar, Istanbul, Turkey); bilgi@ihsanfazlioglu.net

* Ending. See the beginning in: Golden Horde Review, 2014, № 4(6), pp. 57–68; 2015, № 1, pp. 106–127. Russian translation from Turkish by Yu.N. Na­gi­mova and I.M. Mirgaleev.

  Zaytsev I.V.

Islam in the Crimea in the 14th–18th centuries »


I.V. Zaytsev

(Institute of Russian History, Institute of Oriental Studies,
Russian Academy of Sciences)

Prior to 1783, the historical development of Islam in Crimea is divided into at least two stages. The first stage is connected with the influence of the eastern lands of the Golden Horde, which included the Crimean ulus, as well as of the Mamluk Egypt. The second phase began in 1475 when, after the Ottoman conquest of the southern coast of the peninsula, the Crimean Khanate experienced strong cultural and religious influence of the Ottomans. However, the weakened Central Asian influence did not disappear completely, since the Ottoman Crimea was on the way of the Central Asian pilgrims. Beginning in the late 15th century, we see representatives of the ulama, Seyyids and revered sheikhs at the top of the hierarchy, among immediate circle of khans. The process of Islamization of the Khan’s court and the Office on the Ottoman style apparently was largely completed by the reign of Sahib Giray, who appears in the description of his panegyrist as a highly devout ruler. At the same time, the Crimean Islam gave birth to such a specific local phenomenon as worship of the Azizes – the graves of revered personages of the worldwide and local Islamic History.

Keywords: Islam, Golden Horde, Khanate of the Crimea, Ottoman Empire.

About the author: Il’ya Vladimirovich Zaytsev – Leading Research Fellow, Institute of Russian History, Institute of Oriental Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences, Dr. Sci. (History), (107031, Rozhdestvenka st., 12, Moscow, Russian Federation); ilyaaugust@yandex.ru

  Mustakimov I.A.

Once Again to the Question of the Hordes’ Color Terms in the Ulus of Jochi (the Boz-Horde term in the sources of the 16th–19th centuries) »


I.A. Mustakimov

(General Archival Department under the Cabinet of Ministers
of the Republic of Tatarstan

Article discusses the features of using the term of Boz Horde in the territory of the ulus of Jochi. By involving the Turkic and Mongolian sources of the 16th–19th centuries, the author compares the term of Boz Horde with widespread color designations of Aq Horde and Kok Horde that were used in the Golden Horde. Thus, the author attempts to clarify the semantics, time, and circumstances of the emergence of this color term. Initially, there was a legend in the Dasht-i Kipchak about how Genghis Khan granted Batu and Ordu, the eldest sons of Jochi, with Aq Horde and Kok Horde symbolizing the two wings of the ulus of Jochi. According to the author, the emergence of the term of Boz Horde could be associated with the strengthening of Shibanids in the Golden Horde and the need to justify their claim to the throne of Sarai in the second half of the 14th century. Later, as a result of the Golden Horde dissolution and degradation of possessions of the heirs of this State, along with the term of “Aq Horde”, the term of “Boz Horde”, apparently, began labeling in general the khan’s yurt / horde / inheritance without specific dynastic affiliation of particular khan. On the other hand, it should be noted that the white color was not only a symbol of the White Horde precedence over the Blue Horde in the wings’ system of the “White Horde – Blue Horde”, but could also be used outside this dichotomy along with the term of the Golden Horde, as equivalent to the term “great, regal”. Thus, we can assume that the representatives of different Jochid branches could appropriate the term of Aq Horde for reasons of prestige in a changing political environment of the ulus of Jochi.

Keywords: Boz Horde, Aq Horde, Kok Horde, ulus of Jochi, Turkic sources on the Golden Horde history.

About the author: Ilyas Alfredovich Mustakimov – Head of the Sector of Academic Use of Archival Documents and International Relations, General Archival Department under the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Tatarstan, Cand. Sci. (History) (420111, Kremlevskaya st., 2/6, Kazan, Russian Federation); imus@rambler.ru

  Rustemov O.D.

Verbal Descriptions and Portraits of People in the Crimean Court Books of the 17th–18th centuries »


O.D. Rustemov

(Ardahan University, Turkey)

The paper presents current issues of the style of Crimean legal documents (sidzhils) of the 17th–18th centuries. The subject of research is the traditions of making verbal portraits of people, who appear in the court decisions of the Crimean Khanate. The describing of people in the legal practice of the Crimean Khanate wore a traditional character and was not applied to all participants of the process. It also spoke about class inequality in this Muslim country. Such inequality was reflected in similes and metaphors, which were used in the preparation of verbal portrait. Typically, the compilation of some conditional descriptions of people was applied to the slaves who, for various reasons, appeared in court. Usually it would be the case, considering the slave’s redemption or another way of their release.Another way to identify people in the legal documents of the Crimean Khanate was a posting of their name, father’s name and place of residence. For more precise information, sometimes their position was reported in terms that existed in the Crimea in the specified period. As we know, it was time of the Ottoman language and Ottoman terminology.

This article contains some examples of judicial decisions for the first time translated into Russian. The author considers the problem of official style in the Crimean Turkic language, which reflected the process of forming and fixing the style of legal chancery in the Crimean court registries of the 17th–18th centuries. Characteristically, the Ottoman written tradition replaced that of the Golden Horde during this period of the Crimean Khanate’s history.

Keywords: sidzhils of the Crimean Khanate, slave, «sheep eyes», zimmi, court registries of the Bakhchisaray kadilik, stylistics of the Crimean Tatar language.

About the author: Oleg Dilyaverovich Rustemov – Associate Professor of the Ardahan University, Faculty of Humanities and Literature, Cand. Sci. (Philo­logy) (75000, Ardahan, Turkey); biblos@ukr.net

  Abibullaeva E.E.

Mahalle as a Territorial Unit of the Medieval Bakhchisaray: According to the Kadiasker Notebooks’ Materials »


E.E. Abibullaeva

(Ismail Gasprinsky Memorial Museum,
Bakhchisaray Historical, Cultural and Archaeological Museum-Reserve)

This study is based on the Kadiasker notebooks materials (Court registries), which represent a valuable source of the Crimean Khanate history. To date, these regulatory documents have been studied partially because they represent Ottoman arabografic manuscripts of the 17th–18th centuries, which makes them difficult to study. The topic will be considered in the context of the medieval (islamic) city of Bakhchisaray.

Due to the extant Court Registries of the 17th–18th centuries, it has become possible today to provide the most complete picture of the social life of the medieval city and its neighborhoods. The study of revealed names of neighborhoods allowed us to successfully identify the citizens’ occupation and social structure of urban society. The conducted overview of the data for each block of the past century has shown that the name of blocks tend to be very durable, though did not remain unchanged. Tracing the century after century changes in the composition and names of the urban neighborhoods by the use of matched written and ethnographic (questionnaire) data as well as observations of the historically appearance of the city of Bakhchisaray, lead the author to the conclusion that the formation of residential areas was one of the manifestations of the city development.

The locations of some of the neighborhoods were determined based on the information of court registries and extant monuments of medieval Bakhchisaray. Unfortunately, identifying of approximate boundaries of all blocks is a challenging task, due to the fact that not all the mosques, fountains, madrassas and other architectural buildings, which are guides in our study, are preserved. In turn, the Kadiasker notebooks are also partially preserved, and they are one of the few sources that allow detailed study of ethnography issues, muslim law and history of the Crimean Khanate.

Keywords: court registries, Crimean khanate, Bakhchisaray, quarters (mahallas), analysis of the quarter names.

About the author: Elmira Ebazerovna Abibullaeva – Director of the Ismail Gasprinsky Memorial Museum of the Crimean Republican Institution “Bakhchisaray Historical, Cultural and Archaeological Museum-Reserve” (298405, Rechnaya st., 133, Bakhchisaray, Crimea, Russian Federation); Junior Research Fellow at the Crimean Research Center of the Sh.Marjani Institute of History of AS RT (298405, Basenko st., 57 «L», Bakhchisaray, Crimea, Russian Federation); shems-annur@mail.ru



  Abu Bakr Qalandar.

Qalandar -name. Chapter 5. “The Praise of ‘Uthman, Commander of the Faithful” »


Abu Bakr Qalandar

The presented fragment is the next part of the translation of the medieval poetic text “Qalandar-name” of Abu Bakr Qalanadar Rumi, who was a Sufi scholar from the Crimea. This Chapter is devoted to praises to ‘Uthman Dhu-l-Nurayn (The Owner of Two Lights), the son-in-law of the Prophet Muhammad, the third of the four Righteous Caliphs (al-Khulafa al-Rashidun). Within the ten rows, the author mentions the virtues of ‘Uthman, making the main emphasis on piety and charity of this Prophet’s companion. The Persian text is translated by Milyausha Ismagilova, a postgraduate student. Translation’s edition and comments are supplied by Damir Shagaviyev, the Head of Department of History of Religions and Public Thought, Shihab al-Din al-Marjani’s Institute of History (Kazan).

* Continuation. See the beginning in: Golden Horde Review, 2014, № 2(4), pp.243–252; № 3(5), pp.207–214; №4(6), pp.198–207; 2015. № 1, pp.171–177. Russian translation from Persian by a graduate student M.R. Ismagilova. Academic edition of the translation and comments by D.A. Sha­gaviev, Head of the Department of History of Religions and Social Thought at the Sh.Marjani Institute of History of AS RT (Kazan).

  Beisembiev T.K.

Information of “Jawāmi ul-Hikāyāt” by al-‘Awfi on the Samanids, Karakhanids, Seljukids and Khwarezmshahs (2) »


T.K. Beisembiev

(R.B.Suleymenov Institute of Oriental Studies, Almaty, Kazakhstan)

The article continues a series of Beisembiev’s publications [9; 13; 14] on “Jawāmi ul-Hikāyāt wa Lawāmi’ ul-Riwāyāt” by Sadid al-Din Muhammad al-‘Awfi (completed in the second quarter of the 13th century), the largest literary and historical prosaic work in Persian classical literature of pre-Mongol and Mongol periods. It contains a collection of over 2,100 stories (very poorly studied) on diverse subjects. Up to the present, a complete scholarly edition of this greatest historical source is not available.

On the basis of all available publications and a manuscript copy of the early 14th century, Supplément Persan 95 (La Bibliothèque nationale de France), the author presents for the first time his Russian commented translation of 52 Awfi’s stories (hikayat) on the Ghaznavids, Samanids, Karakhanids, Seljukids and Khwa­rezmshahs and provides their interpretation. The titles of the stories, absent in the original, are invented by the translator. Each title is indicated by those number in parentheses, which is specified in the fundamental study on ‘Awfi by Muhammad Nizam ud-Din [40]. At the end of each story there is indicated, in square brackets, a bibliographical reference to the source, from which its translation was made. The “Repertoire” of ‘Awfi containing stories about the Samanids, Karakhanids, Seljukids and Khwarezmshahs is followed by a summarized table of all stories by ‘Awfi pertaining to these dynasties (totally 78 stories, from which 27 translated previously, with bibliographical notes to their publication).

Analysis of the works on the dynasties in question by the famous academics (V.V. Bartold, V.A. Gordlevsky, C.E. Bosworth, S.G. Agadjanov, Z.M. Bu­niya­tov, N.N. Negmatov and B.D. Kochnev) shows that, unfortunately, none of them pay due attention to the valuable information of ‘Awfi.

The author hopes that his publication will provide a deeper understanding in the study of Central Asian history as well as that of other regions in the pre-Mongol period.

Keywords: ‘Awfi, Ghaznavids, Samanids, Karakhanids, Seljukids, Khwarezmshahs, 10th–13th centuries, Persian classical literature, Persian historical sources, pre-Mongol period, Turks, Central Asia, Byzantium.

About the author: Timur Kasymovich Beisembiev – Leading Research
Associate, Department of Near and Middle East, R.B.Suleymenov Institute of Oriental Studies, Committee for Science, Ministry of Education and Science, Republic of Kazakhstan; Cand. Sci. (History), Senior Research Fellow (050010, Kurmangazy st., 29, Almaty, Kazakhstan); shighistanu@mail.ru

* Continuation. See the beginning in: Golden Horde Review, 2015. №1, pp. 178–206.



  Sayfetdinova E.G.

Review on the Book: Pochekaev R.Yu. The Golden Horde Law (Kazan, 2009. 260 p.) »


(Edited by I.M. Mirgaleev. Kazan: “Fen” Publishing House
of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan, 2009. 260 p.)

E.G. Sayfetdinova

(Sh.Marjani Institute of History,
Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan)

This paper contains a review of the R.Yu. Pochekaev’s book “The Golden Horde Law”. The reviewer points out that the Pochekaev’s book is a significant academic research in both the study of the Golden Horde history and the law system of the Eurasian Turkic-Mongol peoples. This book is published by the Center for Research on the Golden Horde Civilization at the Sh.Marjani Institute of History of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan. For several years, the author of this book, R.Yu. Pochekaev, has been concerned with the the history of the Golden Horde State and its law system. He has published a number of works on this topic, the main conclusions of which are reflected in this generalizing work. The study is based on a wide range of sources (annals and chronicles, memoirs of contemporaries, bureaucratic and numismatic materials) and numerous studies including the works of foreign specialists in the original language. In his book, the author organically combines the latest achievements of research on both the Golden Horde history and theory and history of law. The book will be of interest to experts of the Golden Horde history and Orientalists, who are often faced with the legal aspects of the material under study.

Keywords: review, R.Yu. Pochekaev, law system, Golden Horde, monograph, research, jurisprudence.

About the author: Elmira Gadelzyanovna Sayfetdinova – Senior Research Fellow, Usmanov Center for Research on the Golden Horde and Tatar Khanates, Sh.Marjani Institute of History, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan, Cand. Sci. (History) (420014, Kremlin, entrance 5, Kazan, Russian Federation); аdulya2@yandex.ru



  Sabdenova G.E.

International Research Roundtable “New Approaches to the Study of Eurasian History in the early 21st century: A Comparative Analysis of American, European, and post-Soviet Experiences” (December 19, 2014) »

“New Approaches to the Study of Eurasian History
in the early 21st century: A Comparative Analysis of American,
European, and post-Soviet Experiences” (December 19, 2014)

G.E. Sabdenova

(Al-Farabi Kazakh National University)

The International Research Roundtable “New Approaches to the Study of Eurasian History in the early 21st century: A Comparative Analysis of American, European, and post-Soviet Experiences” was held in Almaty December 19, 2014. The round table was organized by the Faculty of History, Archaeology, and Ethnology of the Al-Farabi Kazakh National University. The conference was attended by renowned experts. Professor Talas Omarbekovich Omarbekov was the moderator of this round table. Each report was followed by a discussion. Among others, the following reports were presented at the conference:

Uli Schamiloglu, “The Plague in the Time of Justinian and Central Eurasian History”; G.A. Bordyugov, “An Applied History: Developing Methods of Historical Knowledge in the Situation of an Interdisciplinary Inevitability”; Mehmet Şahingöz, “Problems of Studying the History of Jungar Invasion and Its Influence on the Turkic World in Turkey”; R.R. Gallyamov, “Etnogony as a Way to Study the Early Ethnogenesis and Ethnic History of Turkic Peoples of Central Eurasia”; Mehmet Derviş, “Problems of Studying the History of the Turkic Peoples in the Context of World History”; Roman Hautala, “On the Need of Introduction in Academic Circulation of New Sources on the Golden Horde History”; Ilnur Mirgaleev, “Activities of the Center for Research on the Golden Horde History”; Svetlana Hautala, “About Discrepancy of Information of the Written Sources and Material Artifacts: Herodotus on the Scythian Cauldrons”.

Keywords: international relations, conference, historical disciplines, report.

About the author: Gulmira Esbatyrovna Sabdenova – Associate Professor of World History, Historiography and Source Department, Faculty of History, Archaeology and Ethnology of Al-Farabi Kazakh National University,
Cand. Sci. (History) (050040, av. Al-Farabi, 71, Almaty, Kazakhstan); gulmiras2801@mail.ru

  Uskenbay K.Z.

International Research Roundtable “History of the Kazakh Statehood. On the 80th Anniversary of the Famous Researcher K.A. Pischulina” (December 24, 2014) »

“History of the Kazakh Statehood. On the 80th Anniversary
of the Famous Researcher K.A. Pischulina” (December 24, 2014)

K.Z. Uskenbay

(Shoqan Valikhanov Institute of History and Ethnology, Almaty, Kazakhstan)

This article contains a brief description of the International research confe­rence. The author gives a brief description of the papers presented at the conference. The following reports were presented at the conference: K.Z. Uskenbay. “The Kazakh Statehood during the Late Middle Ages in the Scientific Biography of K.A. Pishchulina”; A. Daulethan. “Formation of Kazakh Culture in the Era of the Mongol Uluses (13th–16th centuries)”; N. Kenzheahmet. “The Kazakh Kha­nate in the Chinese Sources (15th–16th centuries)”; I.M. Mirgaleev. “Activities of the Centre for Research on the Golden Horde History (Sh.Marjani Institute of History, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan) Aimed at Studying New Sources”; K.U. Torlanbaeva. “Ancient and Medieval Kazakhstan in Migration Processes”; Zh.Zh. Zhenis. “Continuity of Statehood and Traditional Worldview in the Empire of Genghis Khan”; A.P. Ermuhamedova. “The Oghuz Role in World History”; N.A. Atygaev. “Early Stage in the History of Kazakh Khanate in the Works of K.A. Pischulina”.

Keywords: international relations, conference, historical disciplines, report, medieval history, history of Kazakh khanate, Mongol Empire legacy, source study.

About the author: Qanat Zulqaryshuly Uskenbay – Head of the Department of Ancient and Medieval History of Kazakhstan and neighboring countries, Shoqan Valikhanov Institute of History and Ethnology under the Scientific Committee of the Ministry of Science and Education of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Cand. Sci. (History) (050050, Shevchenko str., 28, Almaty, Kazakhstan); uskenbay@gmail.com