LATIN SOURCES’ INFORMATION ABOUT THE MONGOLS
RELATED TO THEIR RE-CONQUEST OF TRANSCAUCASIA
(Sh.Marjani Institute of History, Academy of Sciences
of the Republic of Tatarstan;University of Oulu, Finland)
The author of this article tried to trace the evolution of the Mongols’ perception in Latin sources based on information about their military expansion in the Middle East.The first mention of the Mongols appear in Latin sources in 1221. According to these sources, the Mongol army, which accomplished a number of conquests in Central Asia, Persia, and Transcaucasia, consisted of baptized nomads. Latin authors asserted that at the head of this army stood a certain David, “king of the Indies”, which sought to help the Middle Eastern Christians and “liberate” Jerusalem from Muslim rule. Undoubtedly, the Latin sources meant by the “deeds of king David” the first western campaign of the Mongols led by Genghis Khan, which began in 1219 and was directed against the Central Asian sultanate of Khwarezm. These Latin sources were written at the time, when the troops of Genghis Khan had already conquered Khwarezmian territory in Central Asia and began military actions in Khorasan, while the separate divisions of the Mongols led by Jebe and Subedei invaded Transcaucasia and inflicted the first serious defeat to the Christian kingdom of Georgia.
Later, however, a positive Mongols’ perception in the West began to gradually change. First of all, this change was affected by reports of the Georgian rulers expressing obvious doubts about former confidence that the Mongol army was entirely composed of Christians. Even greater impact had information about beginning of the Mongol re-conquest of Transcaucasia. An early report of the Patriarch of Jerusalem about the Mongol units’ appearance in Transcaucasia headed by Chormaqan noyan still reflected the hope for the Mongols’ adherence to the Christian faith. However, subsequent reports on the beginning of the Mongol conquest of Great Armenia radically changed European perceptions of the Mongols.
Starting from 1236, Latin sources began to represent the Mongols as fiends trying to interpret their appearance in accordance with apocalyptic scenarios of popular eschatological writings.
Keywords: history of the Mongol Empire, Mongol expansion in the Middle East, Latin sources, European perception of the Mongols, medieval eschatology.
About the author: Roman Hautala – Senior Research Fellow, Usmanov Center for Research on the Golden Horde and Tatar Khanates, Sh.Marjani Institute of History Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan; Postdoctoral researcher, Historical branch at the Faculty of Humanities, University of Oulu, Ph.D. (History) (420014, Kremlin, entrance 5, Kazan, Russian Federation; 90014, Pentti Kaiteran st., 1, Oulu, Finland); firstname.lastname@example.org
SOME LATIN SOURCES ON THE KHANATE OF UZBEK
(Indiana University, USA)
Nowadays, yarlyks of the most outstanding ruler of the Golden Horde, khan Uzbek, have been preserved only in translations into Russian, Italian, and Latin. This paper analyzes in detail the first of these yarlyks preserved in translation into Latin. The author presents arguments for and against the religious tolerance of Uzbek and makes assumptions about belonging to Christianity of the persons close to the Golden Horde throne. Based on the data from selected and previously published Latin sources of that period, the author tries to comprehend the religious policy of khan Uzbek characterized by the traditional religious tolerance. The current historiographical evaluation of the religious policy of khan Uzbek is mainly based only on the text of his letter to the Mamluk Sultan Malik al-Nasir compiled at the beginning of his reign. Khan Uzbek’s yarlyk dated back to the early period of his rule, represents his religious policy in a completely different light. This as well as other Latin documents directly indicate that the khan of ulus of Jochi was guided in his religious policy by the same principles as his uncle, khan Tokhta.
Keywords: Uzbek, Latin sources, tolerance, embassies, Catholic missionaries, Golden Horde.
About the author: Denis Sinor – Ph.D. (History), Indiana University (USA).
RELATIONS OF EMIR TIMUR WITH EUROPE BEFORE
AND AFTER THE BATTLE OF ANKARA
(Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey)
The article examines the views of European historians on the relations between Amir Timur (Tamerlane) and Europe before and after the Battle of Ankara (1402). The author pays particular attention to the diplomatic correspondence, papal relations with European monarchies, recordings made during the hostilities, and diplomatic missions. The article also highlights the changing image of Amir Timur among Europeans. The most significant changes that took place after the Battle of Ankara are reflected in the official correspondence of the European kings, the Papacy, and the Byzantine emperors. On the one hand, the battle itself was provoked by European and Byzantine rulers. On the other hand, it was a direct consequence of the growth of contradictions between the rulers of Anatolia and Central Asia. At the same time, the author considers that Europe and Byzantium, belonged to a completely different cultures, striving to achieve various political goals, while the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I and Emir Timur, being exclusively Turkic rulers, sought to achieve the same goals using similar methods of political struggle.
Keywords: Amir Timur, Sultan Bayezid II, Byzantine emperor Manuel, French King Charles VI, English King Henry VI, Johann Schiltberger, Enrique III, Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo.
About the author: Güray Kirpik – Lecturer at the Gazi University (06560, Ankara, Turkey); email@example.com
TIMUR, TOKHTAMYSH, AND EDIGU IN CRIMEA:
HISTORIOGRAPHICAL TRADITION AND HISTORICAL REALITY
(Ukrainian Institute of national remembrance)
In the history of the Crimean peninsula, the least studied is a period of the late Middle Ages. To the greatest extent it concerns issues related to the state of the Crimean nomadic and, in particular, of the Crimean ulus of the Golden Horde. Researchers have paid insufficient attention to the study of a period of internal wars of the late 14th – early 15th centuries. Historiographical tradition speaks of several military expeditions undertaken by Timur, Tokhtamysh, and Edigu to the Crimea: in 1395, 1396, 1397, 1399, and 1417. According to researchers, as a result of these campaigns, the majority of the Crimean cities, supposedly, was destroyed. As part of this tradition, there have been written works by A. Jacobson, M. Safargaliev, A. Gertsen, and many others. However, I. Mirgaleev, V. Myts, and a number of Crimean archaeologists criticized the findings of previous studies. Based on comparative analysis of primary sources (Arab chronicles, Golden Horde documents, diaries of travelers) and archaeological data, the author of this article argues that there was in reality only campaign in 1397 and all the other “campaigns” were the consequence of errors of the chroniclers who recorded one historical event under different dates. W. Heyd formulated a similar concept in the late 19th century, but it has not found support in the Soviet historiography. Today more than ever, it is clear that many of the established statements in the history of the Crimean Middle Ages should be reconsidered.
Keywords: Crimea, Timur, Tokhtamysh, Edigu, historiography, 14th century.
About the author: Sergey Viktorovich Gromenko – Ukrainian Institute of national remembrance, Research Associate, Cand. Sci. (History) (01021, Lypska st., 16, Kiev, Ukraine); firstname.lastname@example.org
THE PROBLEM OF GENESIS OF SEYYIDS’ INSTITUTES
IN THE LATE GOLDEN HORDE TURK-TATAR STATES 
(Sh.Marjani Institute of History, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan)
The article analyzes an insufficiently investigated problem of the formation of seyyids’ institute within the Turkic-Tatar States of the 15th–16th centuries, which were the historical heirs of the ulus of Jochi (Golden Horde). The author found that this institution was characteristic for all, without exception, Turkic-Tatar state formations that emerged after the collapse of the Golden Horde. A number of features of this institution (existence of family relationship between the seyyids’ “houses” of different Tatar yurts, seyyids’ participation not only in the diplomatic and administrative affairs but also in military actions) indicates that it appeared in the period of the ulus of Jochi, more precisely, during the reign of khan Uzbek who had completed Islamization of this State. As a result of the study of the complex issues related to the seyyids who lived in the Turko-Tatar khanates and hordes, the author concluded that there was a link between them and the lineages of the Golden Horde seyyids affiliated with the Yasaviyya tariqa. Overall, the author both emphasizes the apparent Golden Horde origin of this very important social institution functioned in all the Turkic-Tatar state formations and indicates the presence of real contacts (including gentilitial ones) between the seyyids’ branches located in different States.
Keywords: seyyids’ institute, Supreme seyyid, Naqib, Yasaviyya tariqa, ulus of Jochi, Golden Horde, supreme elite.
About the author: Damir Mavlyaveevich Iskhakov – Chief Research Fellow, Sh.Marjani Institute of History, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan, Dr. Sci. (History) (420014, Kremlin, entrance 5, Kazan, Russian Federation); email@example.com
 English translation by R. Hautala.
LATIN EMPIRE OF CONSTANTINOPLE, THE JOCHIDS
AND CRIMEA IN THE MID-THIRTEENTH CENTURY*
(Institute of History, Belgrade)
The aim of this paper is the analysis of relations between the Latin Empire of Constantinople and Ulus of Jochi (the Golden Horde). It is primarily focused upon the diplomatic mission of Baldwin of Hainaut, which took place approximately between 1249 and 1252. As a representative of the namesake Latin Emperor, Baldwin of Hainaut led negotiations with the Batu’s son Sartak, and then, he traveled to the Far East, where he possibly met with the Great Khan Möngke. The aim of the mission was to secure the Mongol support for the defense of Constantinople against aggressive aspirations of the Empire of Nicaea. The immediate results of the Baldwin’s mission are not known, but it is certain that they led to the establishment of the diplomatic relations between the Latin Empire and the Jochids. It is confirmed by the fact that the famous Flemish traveler William of Rubruck carried recommendations of the Latin emperor to a Tatar representative who governed the lands to the north of Crimea. Exactly these recommendations provided Rubruck safe passage through the Tatar territory.
Important factor that led to the Baldwin’s enterprise were activities of Venetian and other Italian merchants. They served as primary intermediaries between the Frankish establishment of Constantinople and the Tatars, but they were not the only ones who played this role. Political and ecclesiastical elite of the Crimean cities, especially of its main port Soldaia, also had important place in these contacts. In the mid-thirteenth century, the Crimea became a contact zone between the two civilizations. In Crimea, western and the Tatar political interests intermingled, as a result of the strategic location of the peninsula, commercial activities of its inhabitants and the cosmopolitan character of the Crimean urban centers.
Keywords: Latin Empire of Constantinople, Jochids, Baldwin of Hainaut, William of Rubruck, Crimea, Soldaia, Venice, medieval travels.
About the author: Aleksandar Uzelac – Research Associate, Institute of History, Belgrade, PhD (History) (11000, Kneza Mihaila 36/II, Belgrade, Serbia); firstname.lastname@example.org
* This article partly reproduces the author’s text “Balduin od Enoa i nomadska diplomatija Latinskog carstva” [Baldwin of Hainaut and Nomadic Diplomacy of the Latin Empire], published in Serbian, in: Istorijski časopis [Historical Review]. No. 61. Beograd, Istorijski institut, 2012, pp. 45–65.
THE MAJOR FACTORS OF CONSOLIDATION AND ISLAMIZATION
OF THE TURKIC-SPEAKING POPULATION OF WESTERN SIBERIA
IN THE 16TH–19TH CENTURIES
(Omsk branch of Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography
of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences)
The article shows the importance of archaeological materials, particularly of funerary complexes, for both analyzing the process of formation of the Siberian Tatars in the 16th–17th centuries and studying the features of the development of Islam in Siberia.
The author examines the problem of consolidation of the Turkic-speaking population of the forest-steppe zone of Western Siberia in the second millennium AD, which was expressed in the formation of a common cultural, linguistic, and religious space. The author considers the reasons for duration of this process, analyzes the factors that impeded or facilitated the convergence of certain ethnic groups, the level of socio-economic relations, political developments in these regions. The article shows the importance of the Siberian Khanate as a state and ideological unification of the Turkic-speaking population of Western Siberia, as the main unifying factor in the formation of this ethnic group. The author emphasizes the role of the Russian administration, its action for the creation of new Siberian administrative-territorial system, for the spread of Orthodox Christianity, etc. Particular attention is paid to the process of Islamization of the population already living in the framework of the Russian State after the arrival of Russians, to role in this process of the patrimonial Tatar nobility.
As a result, we can construct the situation as follows. Influenced primarily by political (but not economic) developments, the Turkic-speaking population of Western Siberia was sufficient organized to the last third of the 16th century that is ready to the further rapprochement and transformation into single ethnic group. The weakness of social and economic relations did not allow to develop this convergence. Process of consolidation already began to develop in other conditions – after annexation of Western Siberia by the Russian State – in the 17th–19th centuries. The Tatar nobility and Muslim population migrated from Central Asia and the Lower Volga region, played a key role in this process and Islamization of the entire Turkic-speaking population became a crucial factor. This article only underlines major factors of this process. The whole complex of historical, ethnographic, archaeological, and genetic research is needed to fully explore the history of the formation of the Siberian Tatars and defining its basic chronological stages and driving forces.
Keywords: Siberia, khanate, population, economy, religion, consolidation, Islam, policy, archaeology.
About the author: Sergey Filippovich Tataurov – Head of the Department of Archaeology, Omsk branch of Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Cand. Sci. (History) (644024, K. Marksa st., 15, korp. 1, Omsk, Russian Federation); TatSF2008@rambler.ru
THE EFFORTS TO REINTRODUCE THE MONGOL TRADITION
IN THE CRIMEAN KHANATE AT THE BEGINNING OF THE 17TH CENTURY:
BAYSA, TAT VE TAVGACH
(University of Warsaw;
Institute of History of the Polish Academy of Sciences)
The author examines the different ways, by which foreign borrowings were adopted in the Office of the Crimean Khanate. On the one hand, Tatars adopted specimens from the Moscow and Polish-Lithuanian Chancelleries (e.g. pendant seal), on the other hand, they sought to maintain and even restore ancient terminology related to the Genghisid and Central Asian tradition. Baysa with inscription providing certain rights and privileges on behalf of the ruler was used in the Genghisid Empire and ulus of Jochi. The first Crimean Tatar document, where we meet the term baysa, is a Charter of Shert sent by khan Mehmed III Giray to tsar Mikhail Fedorovich Romanov in September 1624. In 1634, Janibek Giray also wrote about the “golden baysa” apparently as a synonym of seal. Until the mid–17th century, mention of baysa occurs only in the text of the Crimean Charters of Shert sent to Moscow. From 1654, charters with a golden baysa was sent to the Polish king as well. A new form of solemn khan’s charters began to change under the influence of the development of office practice in Moscow and Warsaw. In the same period in the khan’s intitulation appears the formula “the great Padishah of Tat ve Tavgach” – new elements related to the Genghisid and ancient Turkic tradition of Central Asia. Consequently, according to the author, the latter change could be associated with the activities of Shahin Giray and his stay in Persia, or this innovation was imported from the Siberian Khanate.
Keywords: Crimean Khanate, Tatars, chancery, seals, cultural brokers.
About the author: Dariusz Kołodziejczyk – Professor and currently Director at the Institute of History of the University of Warsaw; Professor, the Institute of History of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Dr. Habil. (Krakowskie Przedmieście 26/28, 00–927, Warszawa, Poland); email@example.com
MEHMED SENAI: A CRIMEAN HISTORIAN AT SERAI OF KHAN ISLAM GIRAY
Refat Rustem ogly Abduzhemilev
(Crimean Engineering and Pedagogical University)
The article is devoted to the creative work of Mehmed Senai – the Crimean chronicler at the serai of the khan Islam Geray III, as well as his chronicle “Tarih-i Islam Geray khan” (“History of the khan Islam Geray III”, 1651). The researcher gives biographical information about the author and a brief description of the source. The identity of the writer is defined and based on the text of the Preface to the Chronicle: background, education, position, religious status. The meaning of the pseudonym of Senai is under the study, the text of the chronogram in which it occurs is reproduced. Especially noted thing is the originality of the artistic structure of the Chronicle “Tarih-i Islam Geray khan”.The Chronicle “Tarih-i Islam Geray khan” is the panegyric to the Crimean khan Islam Geray whose reign represents the brilliant epoch in the history of the Crimean Khanate. The writing consists of the ceremonies of public appointments, episodes of military campaigns and making treaties, the text of khan Islam Geray’s pedigree (shejere), construction and repair of buildings.
There is the brief information about the Chronicle and about M. Senai in “Catalogue of the Turkish Manuscripts in the British Museum” (1888). The primary work on writing was conducted by Polish orientalists who prepared the edition of the original text, its translation and processing, backed with comments.
At the time of writing the Chronicle, Mehmed Senai was in his old age, he served as the kadi (religious judge). In his youth he worked as munshi (decorator of papers) in the khan’s office. He got education in the Ottoman Empire, and was engaged in the implementation of diplomatic correspondence. The prospect of identification of the author on the basis of other sources is important to clarify the hypothesis of identifying M. Senai with such Crimean Tatar author as Dzhanmuhammed.
The Chronıcle’s plot consists of the diary notes on the military expeditions, eyewitness accounts (including those of the author). The author of the work focuses the historical events of 1648–1651 covering the Crimean Tatar-Ukrainian-Polish relations. The bulk of the official documents used by Senai was narrow. Details and brevity in the coverage of events indicates that certain materials were available to the author, while others were unavailable.
The aesthetic peculiarities of the Chronicle are also notable as well as historical. The author created the vivid images of the central characters in the writing – Islam Geray, Sefer Gazi aga and Tugay bey. The work is characterized by the use of various expressive means for the purpose of idealization of the images and emotional perception of characters and events.
Keywords: Chronicle, tevarih, Chronicler, author, Mehmed Senai, khan Islam Geray.
About the author: Refat Rustem ogly Abduzhemilev – Senior Researcher of the Research Institute of Crimean Tatar philology, history and culture of ethnic groups of the Crimea, Crimean Engineering and Pedagogical University (295000, Uchebnyy lane, 8, Simferopol, Republic of Crimea, Russian Federation); Junior Researcher of the Crimean Scientific Center of Sh.Marjani Institute of history of AS RT, Cand. Sci. (Philology) (298401, Basenko st., 57 «L», Bakhchisaray, Republic of Crimea, Russian Federation); firstname.lastname@example.org
INITIAL STAGE OF THE ANALYSIS OF THE CRIMEAN KHANATE SOURCES:
(V.I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University)
On the basis of a substantial body of archival documents of the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the little-known publications, the author has restored laborious work of professor of St. Petersburg University Vasiliy Dmitrievich Smirnov who collected, organized and preserved in the central archival repositories sources for the history of the Crimean Khanate. The author has reconstructed the main events in his life and his activities in the Imperial Public Library related to the concentration in this store of the Crimean Tatar documents (article also contains a short list of his main works). Not limited to the literary sources of Turkey and Russia, Vasiliy Dmitrievich repeatedly worked in the libraries of Budapest, Vienna, London, and Paris. In the 1880’s, he continued to develop the theme of his doctoral thesis and combined literary studies and work in the archives with archaeological researches in the Crimea. The author has analyzed the process of creating of the largest work on the history of the Crimean Khanate, which remains hitherto an unrivaled. V.D. Smirnov managed to summarize Turkish sources (medieval Ottoman and Crimean “chronicles”, most of which have not yet been translated) and historiography. This work continues to constitute a historiographical interest in the present. He widely covered, in the first place, the political history of the Crimean Khanate. The author have reviewed the research trip of V.D. Smirnov to the Crimea, his work in local archives, and communication with experts in the Crimean Tatar and Ottoman history. The author has considered the epistolary heritage of the scholar and, on this basis, discovered his academic contacts with leading researchers of Crimea of that time. The author found that he corresponded with such researchers as A.I. Markevich, N.A. Sultan Krym Giray, Z.A. Firkovich, S.M. Shapshal. To V.D. Smirnov belong a comprehensive source study on the history of medieval Turkey and its vassal, the Crimean Khanate.
Keywords: V.D. Smirnov, Crimean Khanate, Public Library, Orientalism, source study.
About the author: Andrey Anatolievich Nepomnyashchiy – Professor, Head of the Department of regional history and special disciplines, V.I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University, Dr. Sci. (History) (295033, prosp. Vernadskogo, 4, Simferopol, Russian Federation); email@example.com
A MATHEMATICIAN HUSSEIN RYFKY TAMANI
IBN MUHAMMAD IBN KYRYM GHAZI
(Crimean Scientific Center of Sh. Marjani Institute of History,
Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan)
In this article an attempt is made to open up and make the analysis of the creative work of one of the outstanding scholar-mathematician in the Ottoman Empire at the end of the 18th – beginning of the 19th centuries whose origin was from the Crimean Khanate – Hussein Ryfky Tamani ibn Muhammad ibn Kyrym Ghazi.
At the beginning of the 19th century, during 11 years, the scholar was a leader (bashkhoja) of the Ground forces military-engineering school (Muhendishane-i berry-i Humayun) in Istanbul.
The article provides a review of translations made by Hussein Ryfky into the Ottoman language of European scientists’ works, as well as of his own research works on Geometry, Engineering and Military science, Astronomy, Geography, and other disciplines. The author also presents the textbooks having for centuries become the basic textbooks in the Ottoman Empire for learning exact sciences in the military educational institutions.
The author provides the analysis of the pedagogical and public activity of the scientist during the period of reforms Nizam-i-Jedid, as well as the short description of his activities during the student years.
Hussein Ryfky Tamani made a synthesis of Western and Ottoman approaches to the science. His works became the corner-stone in the foundation of Ottoman Mathematical science at the beginning of the 19th century.
Keywords: Hussein Ryfky Tamani, Muhendishane-i berry-i Humayun, Nizam-i Jedid, geometry, Iskhak-efendi, Ottoman Empire.
About the author: Memedulla Adilovich Useinov – graduate student of Sh.Marjani Institute of History of Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan (AS RT), assistant researcher at the Crimean Scientific Center of Sh.Marjani Institute of History of AS RT (298400, Basenko st., 57 “L”, Bakhchisarai, Salachik, Crimea, Russian Federation); firstname.lastname@example.org
METAMORPHOSIS OF THE GOLDEN HORDE HISTORY IN THE 21ST CENTURY
(Astrakhan State University)
(M.Akmullah Bashkir State Pedagogical University)
This article discusses three evaluation concepts of the place and role of the Golden Horde in the history of the peoples of Eastern Europe given in three basic researches in recent years: “History of the Tatars from the ancient times. T.III. Ulus of Jochi (Golden Horde). 13th–15th centuries”, Yu.A. Zeleneev’s monograph “Sketches of ethnic and cultural history of the Volga Region in the 13th–15th centuries” and “History of the Bashkir people in seven volumes. Volume II”. By comparing them with each other, the authors come to the conclusion that if the concept both of the authors of the 3rd volume of the “History of the Tartars” and of the Yu.A. Zeleneev’s monograph are constructive and provide opportunities for academic discussion, then the concept of the authors of the 2nd volume of the “History of the Bashkir people” does not go beyond of mere “folk history”.
Keywords: historiography, Golden Horde, ulus of Jochi, ethno-cultural history, Kipchaks, Islam, nomads.
About the authors:
Dmitry Viktorovich Vasilyev – Associate Professor, Head of the archaeological laboratory of Astrakhan State University, Cand. Sci. (History) (414056, Tatischeva st., 20a, Astrakhan, Russian Federation); email@example.com
Vladimir Aleksandrovich Ivanov – Professor, Head of the Department of General History and Cultural Heritage, M.Akmullah Bashkir State Pedagogical University, Dr. Sci. (History) (450000, Oktyabrskaya revolution st., 55a, Ufa, Russian Federation); firstname.lastname@example.org
INFORMATION OF “JAWĀMI UL-HIKĀYĀT” BY AL-‘AWFI ON THE SAMANIDS,
ARAKHANIDS, SELJUKIDS, AND KHWAREZMSHAHS (3)*
(R.B.Suleymenov Institute of Oriental Studies, Almaty, Kazakhstan)
The article continues a series of Beisembiev’s publications    on “Jawāmi ul-Hikāyāt wa Lawāmi’ ul-Riwāyāt” by Sadid al-Din Muhammad al-‘Awfi (completed in the second quarter of the 13th century), the largest literary and historical prosaic work in Persian classical literature of pre-Mongol and Mongol periods. It contains a collection of over 2,100 stories (very poorly studied) on diverse subjects. Up to the present, a complete scholarly edition of this greatest historical source is not available.
On the basis of all available publications and a MS copy of the early 14th century, Supplément Persan 95 (La Bibliothèque nationale, France), the author presents for the first time his Russian commented translation of 52 Awfi’s stories (hikayat) on Ghaznavids, Samanids, Karakhanids, Seljukids and Khorezmshahs and gives their interpretation. The titles of the stories, absent in the original, are invented by the translator. Each title is indicated by those number in parentheses, which is specified in the fundamental study on ‘Awfi by Muhammad Nizam ud-Din . At the end of each story there is indicated, in square brackets, a bibliographical reference to the source, from which its translation was made. The “Repertoire” of ‘Awfi containing stories about the Samanids, Karakhanids, Seljukids and Khwarezmshahs is followed by a summarized table of all stories by ‘Awfi per-taining to these dynasties (totally 78 stories, from which 27 translated previously, with bibliographical notes to their publication).
Analysis of the works on the dynasties in question by the famous academics (V.V. Bartold, V.A. Gordlevsky, C.E. Bosworth, S.G. Aghajanov, Z.M. Buniyatov, N.N. Negmatov and B.D. Kochnev) shows that, unfortunately, none of them pay due attention to the valuable information of ‘Awfi.
The author hopes that his publication will provide a deeper understanding in study of Central Asian history as well as that of other regions in pre-Mongol period.
Keywords: ‘Awfi, Ghaznavids, Samanids, Karakhanids, Seljukids, Khwarezmshahs, 10th–13th centuries, Persian classical literature, Persian historical sources, pre-Mongol period, Turks, Central Asia, Byzantium.
About the author: Timur Kasymovich Beisembiev – Leading Research Associate, Department of Near and Middle East, R.B.Suleymenov Institute of Oriental Studies, Committee for Science, Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan; Cand. Sci. (History), Senior Research Fellow (050010, Kurmangazy st., 29, Almaty, Kazakhstan); email@example.com
* The end of the article. See the beginning in: Golden Horde Review. 2015. No. 1, pp. 178–206; 2015. No. 2, pp. 197–230.
REVIEW OF THE MONOGRAPH OF ZARDYKHAN QINAYATULY
“QAZAQ MEMLEKETІ ZHANE ZHOSHY KHAN”
(“KAZAKH STATE AND JOCHI KHAN”)
(L.N.Gumilev Eurasian National University)
Research monograph of Zardykhan Qinayatuly “Qazaq memleketі zhane Zhoshy khan” (“Kazakh State and Jochi Khan”) was published in the Kazakh language in 2014 in Kazakhstan. There are very few studies in Kazakhstan pub- lished in the Kazakh language on the Golden Horde history. Most historians wri- ting in Russian and English about the Golden Horde history are not familiar with research literature published in other languages. In this review, we note the fol- lowing errors of the author: 1. Purely grammatical errors when writing the names of the historians engaged in all aspects of the history of the ulus of Jochi. 2. Negligence in the design of the monograph, which often do not bear the full output of books and articles that are referenced by the author, neither there is a single list of references at the end of the monograph. 3. Fantastic map of the ulus of Jochi, which contains a lot of factual errors. 4. Ignorance of the historiography of modern research of the ulus of Jochi. From this derive such errors as: naming Jochi with the title of khan, while he was not a khan; confusion with the localiza- tion of the Ak Horde and Kok Horde; ignorance of the fact that Abul Khair Khan became khan only in 1430; uncritical confidence in such unreliable source as Natanzi; improper and unreasoned periodization of the history of the Eastern part of the ulus of Jochi; ignorance of the fact that Berke did not come to power in 1257 but a little later; ignorance of the name of khan Tuda-Mengu when listing the Golden Horde khans; errors in compiling genealogies of the Jochids; incorrect genealogy of the Golden Horde khan Kutlug Timur and his descendants; erro- neous etymology of the ethnonym “Kazak” by attributing to it the origin from the ancient Saks; numerous errors in the chronology of the eastern part of the ulus of Jochi; pseudoscientific etymology of the origin of the term Juz from the ancient Xiongnu as well as pseudoscientific attempt to find the roots of the Kazakh ethnic territory in the realm of the Black Sea Saks (Scythians).
Keywords: Golden Horde, Kazakh State, Jochi, Ak Horde, Urus khan, Orda-ichen.
About the author: Zhaksylyk Muratovich Sabitov – Associate Professor, Political Science Department, L.N. Gumilev Eurasian National University, Ph.D. (Philosophy) (010008, Munaytpasov st., building 5, Astana, Kazakhstan); firstname.lastname@example.org
IV INTERNATIONAL GOLDEN HORDE FORUM
(Sh.Marjani Institute of History, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan)
Usmanov Center for Research on the Golden Horde and Tatar Khanates (Sh.Marjani Institute of History of Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan) has once again become the organizer of a major international academic event aimed at illuminating source studies on the history of the Golden Horde and Turko-Tatar khanates. March 17–18, 2015, Kazan hosted the fourth international Golden Horde forum, which was attended by representatives from 11 countries: Russia, Great Britain, Netherlands, USA, Poland, Ukraine, Turkey, Finland, Kazakhstan, Serbia, and Bulgaria. Three international conferences and round table were held within the forum. The first research conference – “Source Study of the Golden Horde History: Traditions and Innovations” – was devoted to the important issues of source study of the history of the Golden Horde and the Turko-Tatar khanates. The second research conference was dedicated to the “Minting and Circulation of Money in the Golden Horde and Turko-Tatar Khanates in the Light of Source Studies”. The third conference was devoted to the theme: “The Crimean Khanate in International Diplomacy”. The theme of the round table of the fourth international Golden Horde forum was: “The Gene Pool of the Turkish Populations as a Historical Source”.
Keywords: conference, Golden Horde, source study, numismatics, round table, forum.
About the author: Elmira Gadelzyanovna Sayfetdinova – Senior Research Fellow, Usmanov Center for Research on the Golden Horde and Tatar Khanates, Sh.Marjani Institute of History, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan, Cand. Sci. (History) (420014, Kremlin, entrance 5, Kazan, Russian Federation); аdulya2@yandex.ru
REPORT ON THE INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP
“THE GOLDEN HORDE IN A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE: IMPERIAL STRATEGIES”
(LEIDEN UNIVERSITY, MAY 7–8, 2015)
(Sh.Marjani Institute of History, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan;
University of Oulu, Finland)
This article contains a report on the international conference organized by the University of Leiden in May 2015. According to its organizers, this conference has become the first Western European symposium dedicated to the study of the long history of the Golden Horde. The conference became a fruitful meeting place of the leading Russian and Tatar historians and archaeologists with their Western colleagues from the Netherlands, United Kingdom, United States of America, Hungary, Poland, and Finland.
International participants of the Leiden conference discussed the most topical issues of historiography associated with eventful history of the Golden Horde. In particular, the conference participants paid special attention to the study of the administration of the ulus of Jochi that naturally combined governmental models of the Mongol Empire of the Chingizids with local administrative elements. A separate section of the conference was devoted to the analysis of the religious policy of the Golden Horde khans, where special attention was paid to the historiographical debate on the Islamization of the ulus of Jochi. The conference participants also paid considerable attention to the consideration of the material culture of the Golden Horde known both from written sources and, above all, from the materials of archaeological findings. Also, a number of reports of the conference was devoted to foreign and domestic policies of the Golden Horde rulers, at the same time reflecting the central geopolitical role of the ulus of Jochi on the Eurasian continent and the high level of civilization of the Golden Horde.
The main achievement of the Leiden conference was a statement on the need of deeper study of the Golden Horde history in order to overcome a number of stereotypes regarding misconceptions of the ulus of Jochi represented as backward and parasitic State formation. The conference participants agreed in general opinion about the necessity of similar academic symposiums to intensify international contacts between researchers of the Golden Horde history.
Keywords: international conference, history of the ulus of Jochi, Golden Horde civilization, historical studies, archaeological surveys.
About the author: Roman Hautala – Senior Research Fellow, Usmanov Center for Research on the Golden Horde and Tatar Khanates, Sh.Marjani Institute of History, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan; Postdoctoral researcher, Historical branch at the Faculty of Humanities, University of Oulu, Ph.D. (History) (420014, Kremlin, entrance 5, Kazan, Russian Federation; 90014, Pentti Kaiteran st., 1, Oulu, Finland); email@example.com