№ 4 2014



  Khakimov R.S.    6-24

The Interpretation of History as an Ideological Phenomenon »


R.S. Khakimov

(Sh.Marjani Institute of History, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan)

Author of this article examines the relationship between history and ideology. Apart from the purely academic approach allowing to create an objective picture of the past events, history is widely used for ideological purposes. This is facilitated by the ability of the characters, events, and symbols of the past to motivate people to those or other actions, to consolidate the society around the significant ideas. Often, the intervention of ideology in exposition of history leads to a distortion of the past. Attitude to the Tatar factor in world history is an example of such an approach. Despite the achievements of the humanities, a false “story” about the Tatars, the Golden Horde has been preserved until today.The rewriting of history does not always act as its distortion or excuse for specific policies. It may be caused by the need for a modern interpretation of the past in connection with the emergence of new problems. In such a case rethinking of the past becomes a way both of overcoming the backwardness of society in one or another sphere and of correcting missed opportunities. Some “birthmarks” of this system emerge in connection with the return of Russia to capitalism. Russia faces the task of overcoming the “Long Middle Ages” through assimilation of the achievements of modern civilization.

Keywords: rewriting of history, ideology, Golden Horde, Russia, Tatarstan.

About the author: Rafail’ Sibgatovich Khakimov – Director, Sh.Marjani Institute of History, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan (AS RT), Vice-president of AS RT, Academician of AS RT, Dr. Sci. (History) (420014, Kremlin, entrance 5, Kazan, Russian Federation); history@tataroved.ru

  Roman Hautala    25-49

History of the Deeds of David, King of the Indies (1221): Latin Text, Russian Translation, and Commentaries »


Roman Hautala

(Sh.Marjani Institute of History, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan)

This article contains the Latin text, its translation into Russian, and commentaries to the so-called “History of the Deeds of David, King of the Indies” contained in the seventh letter of the Catholic Archbishop of Acre, Jacques de Vitry, sent to the West 18th April, 1221. The “History of David” represents the most comprehensive version of the reports, which began to circulate in the Egyptian camp of the V Crusade’s participants starting from January–February 1221. These reports contained mixed description of the military campaigns of Khwarezmshah Ala ad-Din Muhammad II, Naiman khan Kuchlug, and Genghis Khan. Military operations of the last two historical figures were presented as victorious military campaign of the Christian “king David” and, therefore, of a potential ally of the Crusaders.According to Jacques de Vitry, the “History of David” was translated into Latin from the Arabic language after it had been delivered to the Prince of Antioch Bohemond IV by his spies in Muslim countries.

Anticipating the text of “History”, Jacques de Vitry reports that the Sultan of al-Jazira, al-Malik al-Ashraf, was unable to send his troops against the Crusaders in connection with the appearance of an unexpected military threat on the eastern borders of his possessions. It is obvious that under this threat the Archbishop of Acre had in mind the emergence of the Mongol troops in Iraq at the end of 1220. According to Jacques de Vitry, the appearance of these reports in the Crusader camp of Damietta had a direct influence on the course of the Fifth Crusade. Crusaders in Damietta noticeably heartened after had learning of the advance of “king David” in the Middle East along with encouraging news about the impending arrival in Egypt of the Emperor Frederick II. Under the influence of these reports and after the arrival of reinforcements of the Bavarian Duke Ludwig I, the papal legate Pelagius made ​​the fateful decision to march on Cairo, which led both to the complete defeat of the Crusaders in August 1221 and the end of the Fifth Crusade.

Keywords: Fifth Crusade, western expansion of the Mongols, Nestorian documents, Latin sources, first Western information about the Mongols.

About the author: Roman Hautala – Senior Research Fellow, Usmanov Center for Research on the Golden Horde History, Sh.Marjani Institute of History, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan; Postdoctoral researcher, Historical branch at the Faculty of Humanities, University of Oulu, Ph.D. (History) (420014, Kremlin, entrance 5, Kazan, Russian Federation; 90014, Pentti Kaiteran st., 1, Oulu, Finland); virisequisque@hotmail.com

  Mirgaleev I.M., Khamidova Ch.I.    50-56

The Study of Jochid Genealogy according to Rashid al-Din’s “Shuab-i Pandjghana” »


I.M. Mirgaleev, Ch.I. Khamidova

(Sh.Marjani Institute of History, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan)

The authors of the present study describe the Rashid al-Din’s work “Shuab-i pandjghana” obtained from the archives of the Topkapi Palace Museum in Istanbul and containing genealogies of the reigning dynasties of the “five peoples”. The article contains a brief description of the previous study of this important Rashid al-Din’s work. The authors also analyze the information on the “Shuab-i pandjghana” contained in the A.P.Grigoryev’s study. The authors present their own version about how “Shuab-i pandjghana” got to Anatolia, how the latest version of Rashid al-Din’s work corresponds to his famous composition “Jami al-tawarikh”. The study contains comparison of the information given in two Rashid al-Din’s works – “Jami al-Tawarikh” and “Shuab-i pandjghana”, which shows the difference between them. The authors believe that the information gathered for “Jami al-tawarikh” was the main source, but then some additions and corrections were made. The authors of the article also make an attempt to determine the date when this genealogy was created. They think that this genealogy was compiled later than it is considered to be based on the information given in the preface of the “Shuab-i pandzhgana” and the genealogies. Also one of the arguments is that while writing such a large-scale work as “Jami al-tawarikh” it is difficult to prepare other complex work as genealogies. In the authors’ opinion the fact that the manuscript nowadays is known only in one copy counts in favor of the point of view that the work refers to the end of author’s life. According to the article, by using “Shuab-i pandjghana” one can both accurately trace the genealogy of the Batuid rulers in the Golden Horde and also have an excellent background information for understanding the genealogies of other Jochid branches.

Keywords: Rashid al-Din, Shuab-i pandjghana, “Five Genealogies”, Jami al-tawarikh, Topkapi Palace Museum, Genghis Khan, Jochi khan, Uzbek khan.

About the authors: Il’nur Midkhatovich Mirgaleev – Head of the Usmanov Center for Research on the Golden Horde History, Sh.Marjani Institute of History, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan, Cand. Sci. (History) (420014, Kremlin, entrance 5, Kazan, Russian Federation); dilnur1976@mail.ru

Chulpan Ildarovna Khamidova – Post-graduate student, Sh.Marjani Institute of History, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan (420014, Kremlin, entrance 5, Kazan, Russian Federation); zahragizza@gmail.com

  Ihsan Fazlioglu    57-68

The First Mathematical Book in the Golden Horde State: A Masterpiece of Computational Mathematics (“et-Tuhfe fî ilmi’l-hisâb”) (1) »


Ihsan Fazlioglu

(Istanbul Medeniyet University)

The author of this article represents the first example of the scientific activity in the Golden Horde, which began before Janibeg khan and during the reign of his father, Uzbek khan. The composition entitled “Masterpieces in Computational Science” (“et-Tuhfe fî ilmi’l-hisâb”), written in the Golden Horde on a mathematical topic, occupies a special place because of the information contained therein. This treatise, the contents of which will be described below, shows us the following: scientific activity in the Golden Horde, which began with the adoption of Islam, brought results in a short time and laid the foundations for the “breakthrough” during the reign of Janibeg khan.

In the future, the author plans to explore and learn the value of the text for the mathematical sciences from a historical point of view: the computational book “et-Tuhfe fî ilmi’l-hisâb”, whose author is unknown, was handed to the Crimean Governor and right hand’s bey, Ebul-Muzaffer Giyaseddin Tuluktemir bey, during the reign of Uzbek khan (1313–1342). After mentioning the distinguishing features of the work, the author will focus on the definition of numbers, which is attributed to Muhammad b. Musa Al-Khwarizmi, and which, at the moment, is not recorded in any other sources. The author will test ability to understand the evidence used in the calculation, surveying, and algebra, and will consider definitions regarding the theory of numbers. Subsequently, the author will analyze the formula of approximate values of square and cube roots of irrational numbers, proposed by Mohammed al-Khwarizmi, Abdulkadir al-Baghdadi, and a teacher of the author, Saduruddin al-Farazi.

In the first chapter, “Scientific and Philosophical Life in the Golden Horde State” (discussed in detail in this article), the author presents a brief description of the political, economic, and social life in the ulus of Jochi, to proceed to the consideration of the progress of scientific life developed in close connection with Islamic culture since the time of the formation of the Golden Horde. The author presents the writing under consideration in the context of this broad topic, briefly describing its contents. The purpose of this paper is to define scientific environment, which made possible the writing of the “et-Tuhfe fî ilmi’l-hisâb”.

Keywords: Golden Horde, Uzbek khan, mathematics, algebra, Dasht-i Kipchak, Islam.

About the author: Ihsan Fazlioglu – Istanbul Medeniyet University, member of the Scientific Council of the Turkish Historical Society, Professor, Ph.D. (Philosophy) (34700, Ünalan Mah., No. 98, Üsküdar, Stambul, Turkey); bilgi@ihsanfazlioglu.net

* Beginnig of the article. Russian translation from Turkish by Yu.N. Nagimova and I.M. Mirgaleev.

  Ilyas Kemaloglu (Kamalov)    69-76

Church of St. Mary of the Mongols in Istanbul »


Ilyas Kemaloglu (Kamalov)

(Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University, Istanbul)

Istanbul, throughout its history, has accommodated many states and civilizations. Therefore, the city besides having different names, also has monuments and places of worship belonging to various cultures and faiths. Due to this characteristics of the city there are Catholic, Orthodox, Armenian and Protestant churches along with the mosques and synagogues.

Although the Mongols of Genghis Khan has never ruled Istanbul, one of the churches in the city is called Church of St. Mary of the Mongols. Called Despina khatun by the Mongols, St. Mary, whose names is given to the church, is the daughter of a Byzantine emperor Michael VIII. The Byzantine emperors paid importance to establish kinship ties both with Golden Horde and Ilkhanid states. Through the princes they aimed at preserving the balance and wanted to please the khans. Pursuing this policy, Mary had married to an Ilkhanid khan, Abaqa. After his death she returned to Istanbul and devoted herself to religion. Surviving until present, the church that was built and named by herself in Istanbul attracts attention both with its story of foundation and its name.

Keywords: Mongols, Golden Horde. Byzantium, Michael VIII, Abaqa Khan, Maria Palaiologina, Church of St. Mary of the Mongols.

About the author: Ilyas Kemaloglu (Kamalov) – Associate Professor of History Department of the Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University, Ph.D. (History) (Silahşör Cad. No:71, Bomonti-Şişli / İSTANBUL, Istanbul, Turkey); ilyaskamal78@mail.ru

  Pochekaev R.Yu.   77-95

Tamgha and the Struggle against It: On the History of Medieval Turkic-mongol Taxation System »


R.Yu. Pochekaev

(National Research University Higher School of Economics, St. Petersburg)

The paper deals with the Turkic-Mongol taxation institute of tamgha widely used in the Mongol Empire since the first half of the 13th century. Author characterizes the etymology of this term, its meanings, legal regulation of levy and rates, evolution of the tax in different states – successors of the Mongol Empire (the Golden Horde, Ilkhanate, etc.) as well as in these states even after fall of Chinggisid dynasties (such as Iran under Safavids, Central Asia under Timurids).

As the author supposes, the long-term use of tamgha allows us to talk about the vitality and effectiveness of Chinggisid legal tradition, which survived after the end of “Chinggisid age”. Even the rulers and dynasties, which positioned themselves as rivals of Chinggisids, used tamgha in their taxation system. This tax was also borrowed by the Russians and was used for a long time becoming a base for custom system in Russia.

Other subjects of the research are the struggle of Islamic theologians and jurists against tamgha in different countries of Inner Asia and reasons for this struggle. The author attempts to clarify reasons of this struggle, strict position of clergy against tamgha and measures of rulers who did not want to be in trouble with clergy, but at the same time tried to save tamgha as effective and profitable tax.

Keywords: tamgha, tax system, Turko-Mongol States, customary law, Mongol Empire, Crimean Khanate, Islamic law.

About the author: Roman Yulianovich Pochekaev – Head of the Department of theory and history of law and state of the National Research University Higher School of Economics in St. Petersburg, Cand. Sci. (Jurisprudence), Associate Professor (198099, Promyshlennaya st., 17, St. Peterburg, Russian Federation); ropot@mail.ru

  Khaydarov T.F., Dolbin D.A.    96-112

The Second Plague Pandemic in the Golden Horde and Its Consequences »

T.F. Khaydarov

(Kazan National Research Technical University named after A.N.Tupolev)

D.A. Dolbin

(Federal Budget Institution of Science “Kazan Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology”)

The article reviews the reasons for origin and consequences of spreading for the second plague pandemic in the Golden Horde. By applying scientific data from biology, climatology, medicine, and history, authors come to a conclusion that a large number of natural plague pestholes existed initially in the Ulus of Jochi. Numerous historical sources mentioned plague outbreaks but all of them were of purely local character. The bubonic type of plague characterized by a longer period of illness and an insignificant number of lethal episodes was spread more widely. In the mid-40s of the 14th century a new form of disease, the lung plague, came into existence. It was corpse blackening of the deceased from this type of plague that gave name to the whole pandemic – the “Black Death”. The speed of its progress and spreading significantly exceeded those of the bubonic type and 100% of mortality was recorded among the diseased. However, as historical data show, the outbreak of the lung plague continued in the territory of the Golden Horde from 1346 to 1349. In their article authors prove that one of the most important reasons for the emergence of the lung type was the change in migration flows of Eurasian rodents caused by depletion of nutritional resources in the steppe and serious climatic changes. All other outbreaks of the Black Death are viewed as continuation of the first wave of the disease and their emergence is explained through activity of two natural pestholes (the Relict North-Western and the Lower Volga ones). Consequences of the the first wave were much less substantial for the Ulus of Jochi than those of the following outbreaks (in 1364, 1374, and 1395). The main consequences of the next waves of the disease were: final establishment of 4 political centers (Grand Duchy of Moscow, the Bulgar and the Crimean uluses, and the Blue Horde) striving for political leadership in the territory of the former Golden Horde; establishment of a new ethnic group of the Volga Tatars; and strengthening of Islam’s position in the region.

Keywords: Mamay, Genoa, Crimea, Volga Bulgaria, Lower Volga Area, Central Asia, Kok Horde, islam.

About authors: Timur Faritovich Khaydarov – Senior Lecturer, Kazan National Research Technical University named after A.N.Tupolev, Cand. Sci. (History) (420111, Kazan, Karla Marksa st., 10, Kazan, Russian Federation); timkh2000@yandex.ru

Dmitry Aleksandrovich Dolbin – Senior Research Fellow, Federal Budget Institution of Science “Kazan Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology” of Rospotrebnadzor, Cand. Sci. (Biology) (420015, Kazan, Bolshaya Krasnaya st., 67, Kazan, Russian Federation); dda_sns@mail.ru

  Russev N.D.    113-133

The Golden Horde Relics in the Charters of Medieval Moldavia: General Sketch of the Case “Kishinev” »


N.D. Russev

(High Anthropological School, Kishinev, Moldova)

Researchers are well aware that a part of the Moldovan lands belonged to the Golden Horde. But this period is still not sufficiently studied due to the lack of information, especially in written sources. The author of this article has attempted to expand the source base of the investigated issue by compiling information about the “Tatars” from the medieval charters of Moldova. The author demonstrates that the systematic study of the contents of hundreds of surviving diplomatic monuments enables a more complete reconstruction of local realities during the Golden Horde era. In particular, we can localize individual uluses of the Jochid leaders and find out the direction of the main trends of migration and social transformation of the “Tatars” in the socio-political conditions of the Moldovan statehood. An analysis of the place names such as “Kishinev”, mentioned in charters, sheds light on the nature of the adaptation of the surviving population at the right-bank of the Dniester region under the authority of the Moldavian rulers at the end of the 14th–15th centuries

Keywords: Tatars, Tatar countries, Moldovan charters, Byk, Kishinev, Old Orhei, Teghenechiciu, Kutlubuga, Demetrius.

About the author: Nikolay Dmitrievich Russev – Lecturer, University “High Anthropological School”, Dr. Sci. (History), (MD 2024, Zimbruluy st., 10 A, Kishinev, Moldova); nrussev@mail.ru

  Rudenko K.A.    134-147

The Mongol Conquests and Their Reflection in Material Culture of the Peoples of the Middle Volga and Kama Regions (the 13th – early 14th centuries) (according to the archaeological data) »


K.A. Rudenko

(Kazan State University of Culture and Arts)

The article considers the beginning of the Mongol invasion of Europe, a key moment in the history of Europe. Written sources contain little information about these events. Therefore, the main sources are the archaeological materials. Archaeological findings help us to reconstruct the process of the conquest of Volga Bulgaria. It was the first State that the Mongols conquered during the Western campaign.

We can find out the nature of the changes in the Bulgar region of the Golden Horde, which occurred during the second half of the 13th century, both by exploring materials of such major Bulgarian cities as Bilyar, Bolghar, Juketau, Iski-Kazan (which became later the Golden Horde urban centers) as well as by studying the materials of rural settlements. If the hillforts’ materials indicate both the preservation of pre-Mongol traditions and significant innovations, then the materials of rural settlements are different and very individual. Insufficient research of the Golden Horde settlements does not allow us to make generalizations and detailed analysis. But we can identify a number of leading directions in the different periods of the Golden Horde history on the basis of the excavation of some settlements in the Western Trans-Kama region.

Keywords: Volga Bulgaria, archaeology, ulus of Jochi, Golden Horde, Mongol Empire.

About the author: Konstantin Аleksandrovich Rudenko – Professor of the Kazan State University of Culture and Arts, Dr. Sci. (History) (420059 Orenburgskiy trakt, 3, Kazan, Russian Federation); murziha@mail.ru

  Trepavlov V.V.    148-165

Kasimov Tsardom in the Tatar Memory of the 19th century »


V.V. Trepavlov

(Institute of Russian history, Russian Academy of Sciences)

In August 1834, the mullah of the cathedral mosque in the town of Kasimov addressed to parishioners with a solemn speech on the occasion of majority of the successor of a throne. In this speech he made short digression to the history of Kasimov Tsardom focusing on the listing of its rulers with short characteristic of some of them. At that time, there were no professional studies on the Kasimov Tsardom, while it was almost completely ignored in general works on Russian history (of Karamzin, Polevoy, Tatishchev, Shcherbatov). Some Tatar families kept genealogies-shedzheres, but in the absolute majority, they did not record the ancestors and especially events before the 18th century. An indirect evidence about the life in Kasimov during the 15th–18th centuries contained in the eastern books (for the most part, of an apparent religious and didactic content) do not give grounds for the claim that there existed a written fixation of the local history events. Tombstone inscriptions were illustrative but hardly informative evidence of the events of the 16th–17th centuries. They provide minimal information about past rulers. The writing of a Kasimov Tatar chronicler Qadyr Ali-bek of the 1830s obviously was not yet known. Researches of local ethnographers (I. Gagin, I. Krasnov) could serve as a source of knowledge of the Tatars interested in history. These studies rarely appeared on the pages of periodicals including the journal “Otechestvennye zapiski” (Domestic Notes). Comparison of these publications with the speech of Abdulwahid Smailev discovers their interrelation or the use of a common source. An analysis of the mullah’s speech shows that the fragmentary information from some Russian sources published at that time and the deaf echoes of the long-standing history in Tatar oral and written tradition of the first half of the 19th century developed, in the end, in a fairly consistent picture. In general, this picture was chronologically correct, but it was not full of details and abounded in factual errors.

Keywords: Kasimov Tsardom, historical memory, «Molva» newspaper, Abdulwahid Smailev, Velyaminov-Zernov, vassal tsars, tsareviches, cemetery.

About the author: Vadim Vintserovich Trepavlov – Chief Research Fellow, Institute of Russian history, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chief of the Center of History of the Peoples of Russia and Interethnic Relations, Dr. Sci. (History), (117036, Dmitry Ulyanov st., 19, Moscow, Russian Federation); trepavlov@yandex.ru

  Gulevich V.P.    166-197

Crimea and the “Emperors of Solkhat” in 1400–1430: A Chronology of the Reign and the Status of the Rulers »


V.P. Gulevich

(Staff of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine)

The first third of the 15th century was difficult and the most important period in formation of the Crimean Khanate. Despite the importance of the Crimea for the Golden Horde, it was rather peripheral district. The impossibility to control the situation on the peninsula has led to the fact that the Emir Idegei and his khans returned to the practice started by Toktamysh Khan at the end of the 14th century and allowed a local Chingizid Khan Bek-Sufi (from the genus of Tuka-Timur) to rule in the Crimea. As a ruler of the Crimean Ulus, Beck-Sufi Saray recognized the power of the Saray khans, whose governors were constantly in Solkhat. Khan Dawlet Berdi, brother of Beck-Sufi Khan, also received the approval from the Ulugh Muhammad Khan to rule in the Crimea, but tried to seize the power in the Golden Horde and lost. Thus, there is no reason to remove the date of the emergence of the Crimean khans and Crimean Khanate itself from 1442 to 1420. On the contrary to the accepted view of the active intervention of the Lithuanian Grand Duke Vytautas in the history of the Golden Horde, an objective analysis of the sources for the period of 1400–1430 does not confirm this.

Keywords: 1400–1430, Crimean Ulus, Crimean Khanate, Golden Horde, Bek-Sufi Khan, Dawlet Berdie Khan, Ulugh Muhammad Khan, Solkhat, Caffa, political history.

About the author: Vladislav Petrovich Gulevich – chief adviser, Office for Relations with the Local Government and the Local Authorities to the Staff of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, MA (History) (01008, M. Grushevskiy st., 5, Kiev, Ukraine); gulevych_v@ukr.net


  Abu Bakr Qalandar.    198-207

Qalandar-name. Chapter 3. “Praises to Abu Bakr, Commander of the Faithful” »


Abu Bakr Qalandar

The presented fragment is the next part of the translation of the medieval poetic text “Qalandar-name” written by Abu Bakr Qalandar, the Sufi scholar from the Crimea. This Chapter is devoted to praises to Abu Bakr al-Siddiq (The Truthful), the Successor of the Prophet Muhammad, the first of the four Righteous Caliphs (al-Khulafa al-Rashidun). Within the nine rows the author mentions the virtues of Abu Bakr making the main emphasis on truthfulness, loyalty and sincerity of this Prophet’s companion. The Persian text is translated by Milyausha Ismagilova, the postgraduate student. The translation’s edition and comments are supplied by Damir Shagaviev, Head of the Department of History of Social Thought and Islamic Studies at the Sh.Marjani Institute of History of AS RT (Kazan).

* Continuation. See the beginning in: Golden Horde Review. 2014. № 2(4). P.243–252; № 3(5). P.207–214. Russian translation from Persian by a graduate student M.R. Ismagilova. Academic edition of the translation and comments by D.A. Shagaviev, Head of the Department of History of Social Thought and Islamic Studies at the Sh.Marjani Institute of History of AS RT (Kazan).


  Sabitov Zh.M.    208-215

Review of the R.P. Khrapachevsky’s Monograph “The Polovtsy-Kuns in the Volga-Ural Interfluve (according to the Chinese sources)” »


Zh.M. Sabitov

(L.N.Gumilev Eurasian National University)

In 2013 R.P. Khrapachevsky published a monograph “The Polovtsy-Kuns in the Volga-Ural Interfluve (according to the Chinese sources)”. The review outlines all the advantages and disadvantages of this academic work. Two main advantageous moments in the book under review are as follows. Full biography of Tutuq translated into Russian. More extensive argument of the thesis about the correct reading of the name of a distant ancestor of Tutuq (Qu-nien “Kunan” rather, than Quchu). Otherwise, the book under review contains a large number of errors which nullify those advantageous points raised above. It is worth noting that in terms of historiography R.P. Khrapachevsky ignores and does not use a lot of work on the Kipchaks, such as the works of S.M. Akhinzhanov, Ya.V. Pilipchuk, P. Pelliot, etc. Also the hypothesis that the Hunan (tribal chief of Tsubu tribe) is identical to Kunan (ancestor of Tutuq) is very perspective. The hypothesis of R.P. Khrapachevsky that Hunan and Kunan are two different people are not reasoned. In his book R.P. Khrapachevsky put forward the following theses: the real name of the Tutuq’s ancestor was not Qu-chu (Kucuk) but Qu-nien (Kunyan in the interpretation of R.P. Khrapachevsky). The name of Kunyan, who was the leader of the tribe of Kuns and ancestor of Tutuq, is translated as a “sample (example) of the Kuns”. According to R.P. Khrapachevsky, Inasy, the grandson of Kunyan, was born about 1115–1120 and died between 1208 and 1217. So, Kunyan was born in the middle of 12th century and led the migration of Kuns. The horde of Inasy first encountered the Mongols in 1208–1210 to help Khudu, chief of the Merkit tribe. All theses of R.P. Khrapachevsky contradict the primary sources’ information and hypotheses of other authors who have studied the Kipchaks. According to the Yuan-shi and Nasavi, the ruling tribe of Kipchaks was Bayaut but not Kun.

Keywords: Polovtsy, Kunyan, Inasy, Tutuq, Kuns, Bayaut, Kipchaks.

About the author: Zhaksylyk Muratovich Sabitov – Associate Professor, Political Science Department, L.N. Gumilev Eurasian National University, Ph.D. (Philosophy) (010008, Munaytpasov st., building 5, Astana, Kazakhstan); babasan@yandex.ru


  Sayfetdinova E.G.    216-218

Round table “The Horde-Bazar: Nomadic Horde or Nomadic City?” (Kazan, 13th May, 2014) »

(Kazan, 13TH May, 2014)

E.G. Sayfetdinova

(Sh.Marjani Institute of History, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan)

13th May 2014, a round table “The Horde-Bazar: Nomadic Horde or Nomadic City?” has been held as part of the series “The Phenomenon of the Golden Horde”. The round table was attended by I.M. Mirgaleev, D.M. Iskhakov, I.L. Izmaylov, R.M. Valeev, E.G. Sayfetdinova, A.I. Bugarchev, as well as graduate students and applicants of the Usmanov Center for Research of the Golden Horde History.

Head of the Center, I.M. Mirgaleev, opened the event by proposing to discuss such questions as: whether the Horde-Bazar was a city? Or a nomadic horde of khan? How researchers should treat information of the sources? M.S. Gatin noted the need to more clearly define the concept of “nomadic city” and “nomadic horde”. Maybe, it was the mere Horde’s mention in Russian chronicles? In turn, I.L. Izmaylov suggested that Russian sources do not necessarily understand Sarai under the term of “Horde”. The Horde might be the common name of the travel scope of Russian rulers. D.M. Iskhakov noted with regards to the concepts and definitions, that the terms “Horde-Bazaar” and “Horde””did not necessarily mean the same concept. Moreover, we see in the sources that there was a post of “the prince of bazar” who ran this institution (bazar) within the Horde. E.G. Sayfetdinova noted that Ötemish Hajji mentions in his “Chingiz-name” the term of the Horde-bazar. He says on the election of Timur Malik as new khan that when he came to the throne, there was delivered a sermon in the Horde-bazar. R.M. Valeev stressed that it is important to pay attention to the minting of coins for the determination of the Horde-bazar. If in the 13th century the name of the “Horde-bazar” is absent, then in the 14th century it is mentioned as a center of coinage. A.I. Bugarchev added that in the 13th century there was one concept of “Horde” and in the 14th century the “Horde” appears on coins. We still do not know whether it was one or more mints. So, when we talk about the Horde-bazar, it is necessary to clarify what period we mean.

In the final part of the event there was defined range of problems that can be offered to debate aimed at holding such meetings regularly. Thus, the roundtable participants noted the need for close mutual cooperation of scholars to solve the problematic issues concerning the history of the Golden Horde.

About the author: Elmira Gadelzyanovna Sayfetdinova – Senior Research Fellow, Usmanov Center for Research of the Golden Horde History, Sh.Marjani Institute of History, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan, Cand. Sci. (History) (420014, Kremlin, entrance 5, Kazan, Russian Federation); аdulya2@yandex.ru

  Roman Hautala    218-233

Report on the International Conference “Mobility and Transformations: Economic and Cultural Exchange in Mongol Eurasia” (Jerusalem, 29th June – 1st July, 2014) »


Roman Hautala

(Sh.Marjani Institute of History, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan)

The article contains a report on the international conference “Mobility and Transformations: Economic and Cultural Exchange in Mongol Eurasia” held in Jerusalem from 29th June to 1st July, 2014. The conference was organized by the Israel Institute of Advanced Studies at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

The main scope of the conference was to find an answer to the question: how the various forms of mobility, i.e. migration of large groups of people and broad dissemination of ideas and artifacts, affected the formation of intercultural exchange in the Mongol Empire of the 13th–14th centuries, and how great was the influence of these transformations? In particular, special attention in the conference was paid to the reconstruction of the cultural, commercial, religious, and intellectual exchanges within the Mongol Empire.

The conference participants presented their reports on specific thematic panels. Therefore, the author describes them separately, including a brief description of the report of each participant.

The participants of the conference reflects, to some extent, actual interests of contemporary researchers of the Mongol Empire.

Keywords: history of the Mongol Empire, international conference, Israel Institute for Advanced Studies, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, actual interests of contemporary researchers.

About the author: Roman Hautala – Senior Research Fellow, Usmanov Center for Research on the Golden Horde History, Sh.Marjani Institute of History Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan; Postdoctoral researcher, Historical branch at the Faculty of Humanities, University of Oulu, Ph.D. (History) (420014, Kremlin, entrance 5, Kazan, Russian Federation; 90014, Pentti Kaiteran st., 1, Oulu, Finland); virisequisque@hotmail.com