2019, vol. 7, no. 1. Maslyuzhenko D.N.

2019, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 131-158

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22378/2313-6197.2019-7-1.131-158


D.N. Maslyuzhenko
Kurgan State University
Kurgan, Russian Federation

Abstract: Research objective: To identify the stages and consequences of the Islamization process of the population of the south of Western Siberia in the 13th–16th centuries.
Research material: The research work was conducted on the basis of analysis of published sources: annals, chronicles, ambassadorial documents, missive letters and contracts, travellers’ notes, archaeological and ethnographical materials.
Results and novelty of the research: Historiography of Siberian Islam traditionally considers Kuchum Khan as the central figure in the process of Islamization of local Turkic-Tatar groups. As a rule, previous attempts at establishing Islam there are considered rather superficially. The author of the article believes that it is inappropriate to take the first from the second when considering the process of Islamization and lacking an understanding of some of its consequences. The acquaintance of the population with Islam began in the pre-Mongol period due to the presence in this territory of Turkic nomads familiar with the culture of Central Asia. Purposeful attempts to establish this religion were connected with the activities of the descendants of Shiban ibn Jochi in the ulus of which the western lands of the region under consideration were included. They directly fit into the corresponding trends in the central lands of the ulus of Jochi, especially during the period of Uzbek Khan. The existence of the wintering camps of the Shibanids on the Syr Darya, where Islam had a traditionally strong position, was an important factor. Thus, there were two potential centers for the introduction of Islam into Siberian lands (the Volga region and Central Asia), which had an economic impact on the Shibanid domain. The consequences of the activities of Muslim preachers were ambiguous. On the one hand, there were clashes on religious grounds, but on the other, alternative faiths, in particular Buddhism, clearly retained their positions on the Siberian periphery. With the beginning of Shibanid statehood in the form of the Uzbek Khanate, as well as its heirs in the region – the Tyumen and Siberian Khanates – the dynasty began to purposefully support the Muslim community, something expressed in the vocabulary of the aristocracy, the presence of seyyids and hafizes at the khan’s court, hutba’s and sikka’s implementations during the enthronement of the rulers. Obviously, this indicates the great importance of this community in supporting the power of the khan. Indirect evidence suggests that by the end of the fifteenth century, Islam was accepted not only by representatives of the elite, but also by ordinary nomads. However, the crisis of the local statehood of the Shibanid dynasty at the beginning of the sixteenth century became a factor in the departure of the khans and their supporting nomadic groups to the Syr Darya and the Aral Sea region. This led to a significant decrease in the number of local Muslims and a break in cultural traditions. Moreover, after 1563, the new Siberian khans, Ahmad Giray and Kuchum, faced the problem of sowing Islam in the territory of Siberia along the Irtysh which had not previously been directly subordinate to the khanate. The result was a new stage of Islamization which at the same time affected precisely the new groups of the population subordinated to the khan’s power.

Keywords: Shibanids, Tyumen khanate, Siberian khanate, Islam, Western Siberia

For citation: Maslyuzhenko D.N. The Islamization Process of the Population of the South of Western Siberia in the 13th–16th centuries. Zolotoordynskoe obozrenie=Golden Horde Review. 2019, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 131–158. DOI: 10.22378/2313-6197.2019-7-1.131-158


  1. Abul’-Gazi-Bakhadur-khan. Rodoslovnoe drevo tyurkov [The genealogical tree of the Turks]. Abul’-Gazi-Bakhadur-khan. Rodoslovnoe drevo tyurkov. Ioakinf. Istoriya pervykh chetyrekh khanov doma Chingisova. Len-Pul’ Stenli. Musul’manskie dinastii [Abul’-Gazi-Bakhadur-khan. The genealogical tree of the Turks. Father Ioakinf. The history of the first four khans of the Chinggisid house. Lane-Poole Stanley. Muslim dynasties]. Moscow–Tashkent–Baku, 1996, pp. 3–186. (In Russian)
  2. Akty istoricheskie, sobrannye i izdannye Arkheograficheskoyu komissieyu [Historical acts, collected and published by the Archaeographic Commission]. St. Petersburg, 1841, Vol. II: 1598–1613. 472 p. (In Russian)
  3. Anninskiy S.A. Izvestiya vengerskikh missionerov XIII–XIV vv. o tatarakh v Vostochnoy Evrope [Letters of the Hungarian missionaries of the 13th–14th centuries on the Tartars in Eastern Europe]. Istoricheskiy arkhiv [Historical archive]. Moscow–Leningrad, Akademiya nauk SSSR Publ., 1940, vol. III, pр. 71–112. (In Russian)
  4. Argentovskij Ju.A. Arheologicheskie nahodki v djunah bliz derevni Mogilevoj Kondinskoj volosti Shadrinskogo uezda [Archaeological finds in the dunes near the village of Mogileva in the Kondinskaya volost of the Shadrinsky district]. Zapiski Ural’skogo Obshhestva Ljubitelej Estestvoznanija [Notes of the Ural Society of Naturalists]. Vol. XXXI. 1912, Iss. 1, pp. 32–43. (In Russian)
  5. Bahrushin S.V. Sibirskie sluzhilye tatary v XVII v. [Siberian Tatars in the 17th century]. Nauchnye trudy. T.III. Izbrannye raboty po istorii Sibiri XVI–XVII vv. CH. 2. Istoriya narodov Sibiri v XVI–XVII vv. [The scientific works. T. III. Selected works on the history of Siberia of the 16th–17th centuries. P. 2. The history of the peoples of Siberia in 16th–17th centuries]. Moscow, Akademiya nauk SSSR Publ., 1955, pp. 153–175 (In Russian)
  6. Beloglazov A.V. Vliyanie islama na politicheskie protsessy v Tsentral’noy Azii [The influence of Islam on the political processes in Central Asia]. Kazan, Kazan State University Publ., 2013. 294 p. (In Russian)
  7. Belyakov A.V. Abyzy (khafizy) v Moskovskom gosudarstve XVI–XVII vekov [The Abyzes (Hafizes) in the Moscow state of the 16th–17th centuries]. Srednevekovye tyurko-tatarskie gosudarstva. Nauchnyy ezhegodnik [The medieval Turkic-Tatar States. Research Yearbook], 2015, no 7, pр. 40–45. (In Russian)
  8. Belyakov A.V., Maslyuzhenko D.N. Sibirsko-buharsko-nogajskie otnosheniya v svete perepiski buharskogo hana Abdallaha s sibirskim hanom Kuchumom [Siberian-Bukharan-Nogai relations in the light of correspondence between Abdallah, the khan of Bukhara, and Kuchum, the khan of Siberia]. Stratum plus, 2016, no. 6, pp. 229–243. (In Russian)
  9. Bustanov A.K. Manuskripty sufiyskikh shaykhov: turkestanskaya traditsiya na beregakh Irtysha [Manuscripts of the Sufi sheikhs: the Turkestan tradition on the banks of the Irtysh river]. Etnografo-arkheologicheskie kompleksy: problemy kul’tury i sotsiuma [Ethnographic-archaeological complexes: problems of culture and society]. Omsk, Publishing house “Science”, 2009, v. 11, pp. 195–229. (In Russian)
  10. Bustanov A.K. Denezhnoe obrashchenie v Sibirskom uluse [Monetary circulation in the Siberian ulus]. Tyurkologicheskiy sbornik. 2007–2008: istoriya i kul’tura tyurkskikh narodov Rossii i sopredel’nykh stran [Turkological collection. 2007–2008: the history and culture of the Turkic peoples of Russia and adjacent countries]. Moscow, Eastern literature Publ., 2009, рр. 56–66. (In Russian)
  11. Bustanov A.K. Sufiyskie legendy ob islamizatsii Sibiri [Sufi legends about the Islamization of Siberia]. Tyurkologicheskiy sbornik. 2009–2010. Tyurkskie narody Evrazii v drevnosti i srednevekov’e [Turkological collection. 2007–2008: the history and culture of the Turkic peoples of Russia and adjacent countries]. Moscow, Eastern literature Russian Academy of Sciences Publ., 2011, pp. 33–78. (In Russian)
  12. Vasil’ev D.V. Islam v Zolotoy Orde: istoriko-arkheologicheskoe issledovanie [Islam in the Golden Horde: historical and archaeological research]. Astrakhan, Astrakhan State University Publ., 2007. 170 р. (In Russian)
  13. Garustovich G.N. Religioznaya situatsiya v Zolotoy Orde glazami sovremennikov [The religious situation in the Golden Horde in the eyes of contemporaries]. Islam i vlast’ v Zolotoy Orde. Sbornik statey [Islam and power in the Golden Horde. A collection of articles]. Kazan, Marjani Institute of History of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences, 2012, pp. 73–97. (In Russian)
  14. Garustovich G.N. «Teoriya mavzoleev» ili regional’nye osobennosti kul’tovogo memorial’nogo zodchestva Uralo-Povolzh’ya epokhi Zolotoy Ordy (istoricheskie i etnograficheskie aspekty problemy) [“The theory of mausoleums” or regional features of the cult memorial architecture of the Ural-Volga region of the Golden Horde era (historical and ethnographic aspects of the problem)]. Zolotoordynskoe obozrenie=Golden Horde Review, 2014, no. 2 (4), pp. 96–109. (In Russian)
  15. Garustovich G.N. K voprosu ob etnicheskoy situatsii v lesostepnom Zaural’e v nachale II tysyacheletiya n.e. [To the question about the ethnic situation in the forest-steppe Trans-Urals in the beginning of the 2nd Millennium BC]. Arkheologiya Srednego Pritobol’ya i sopredel’nykh territoriy. Materialy mezhregional’nogo kruglogo stola [Archaeology of the Middle Tobol region and adjacent territories. Materials of the interregional round table]. Kurgan, Kurgan State University Publ., 2016, pp. 62–65 (In Russian)
  16. Herberstein S. Zapiski o Moskovii [Notes on Muscovite Affairs]. Moscow, Moscow State University Publ., 1998. 420 p. (In Russian)
  17. Jankinson E. Puteshestvie v Srednyuyu Aziyu. 1558–1560 gg. [The journey to Central Asia. 1558–1560]. Angliyskie puteshestvenniki v Moskovskom gosudarstve v XVI veke [English travelers in the Moscow state in the 16th century]. Moscow, 1937, pp. 167–192. (In Russian)
  18. Dmitriev A. Pokorenie ugorskikh zemel’ i Sibiri [The conquest of the Ugric lands and Siberia]. Permskaya starina. Sbornik statey i materialov preimushchestvenno o Permskom krae [The Perm antiquities. A collection of articles and materials primarily about the Perm Krai]. Perm, 1894, ed. V. xii, 220, iv p. (In Russian)
  19. Zolotaya Orda v istochnikakh. Arabskie i persidskie sochineniya [The Golden Horde in the sources. Arabic and Persian writings]. Comp., introductory article and comments by R.P. Khrapacheskiy. Moscow, 2003, vol. 1. 448 p. (In Russian)
  20. Ioviy P. Posol’stvo ot Vasiliya Ioannovicha, velikogo knyazya Moskovskogo, k pape Klimentu VII [The Embassy from Vasily Ivanovich, Grand Prince of Moscow to Pope Clement VII]. Biblioteka inostrannykh pisateley o Rossii [Library of foreign writers about Russia]. St. Petersburg, 1836, vol. 1, pp. 28–31. (In Russian)
  21. Istoriya tatar Zapadnogo Priural’ya. T.I. Kochevniki Velikoy stepi v Priural’e. Tatarskie srednevekovye gosudarstva [The history of the Tatars of the Cis-Urals. Vol. I. Nomads of the great steppe in the Cis-Urals. Medieval Tatar States]. Kazan, Marjani Institute of History of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences, 2016. 464 p. (In Russian)
  22. Ishakov D.M. Institut sejidov v Uluse Dzhuchi i pozdnezolotoordynskih tjurko-tatarskih gosudarstvah [Institute of the sayyids in the Ulus of Jochi and late Golden Horde’s Turkic-Tatar States]. Kazan, Fan Publ., 2011. 228 p. (In Russian)
  23. Ishakov D.M. Problema «okonchatel’noj» islamizacii Ulusa Dzhuchi pri hane Uzbeke [The problem of “definitive” Islamization of the ulus of Jochi under Uzbek Khan]. Islam i vlast’ v Zolotoj Orde [Islam and power in the Golden Horde]. Kazan, Marjani Institute of History of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences, 2012, pp. 129–153. (In Russian)
  24. Kamalov I. Zolotaja Orda i russkij ulus (tatarskoe vlijanie na Rossiju) [The Golden Horde and Russian ulus (Tatar influence on Russia)]. Kazan, Marjani Institute of History of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences, 2016. 304 p. (In Russian)
  25. Katanov N.F. Predaniya tobol’skikh tatar o pribytii v 1572 godu mukhammedanskikh propovednikov v g. Isker [Legends of the Tobolsk Tatars on arrival in 1572 of the Muslim preachers to Isker]. Ezhegodnik Tobol’skogo gubernskogo muzeya [Yearbook of the Tobolsk province Museum]. Tobol’sk, 1897, is. 8, pp. 51–61. (In Russian)
  26. Kononov A.N. Rodoslovnaja turkmen. Sochinenie Abu-l-Gazi, hana Hivinskogo [The genealogy of the Turkmens. The work of Abu-l Gazi Khan of Khiva]. Moscow–Leningrad, Akademiya nauk SSSR Publ., 1958. 192 p. (In Russian)
  27. Kostjukov V.P. Ulus Shibana v XIII–XIV vv. (po pis’mennym dannym) [The Ulus of Shiban in the 13th–14th centuries (according to the written data)]. Problemy istorii, filologii, kul’tury [Problems of history, philology, culture], 1998, Is. VI, pp. 210–224. (In Russian)
  28. Kostyukov V.P. Kul’turnye transformatsii v uralo-kazakhstanskoy stepi v pervoy polovine II tys.n.e. [Cultural transformation in the Ural steppes of Kazakhstan in the first half of the 2nd Millennium AD]. Arkheologiya Yuzhnogo Urala. Step’ (problemy kul’turogeneza) [Archaeology of the Southern Urals. The Steppe (problems of cultural genesis)]. Chelyabinsk, Rifey Publ., 2006, pp. 444–457. (In Russian)
  29. Kostjukov V.P. Ulus Dzhuchi i sindrom federalizma [The ulus of Jochi and syndrome of federalism]. Voprosy istorii i arkheologii Zapadnogo Kazakhstana [Questions of history and archaeology of Western Kazakhstan], 2007, no. 1, is. 6, pp. 169–207. (In Russian)
  30. Kostyukov V.P. «Zheleznye psy Batuidov» (Shibane i ego potomki v voynakh XIII v.) [The “Iron dogs of the Batuids” (Shiban and his descendants in the wars of the thirteenth century)]. Voprosy istorii i arkheologii Zapadnogo Kazakhstana [Questions of history and archaeology of Western Kazakhstan], 2008, no. 1, pp. 43–97. (In Russian)
  31. von Kügelgen A. Legitimacija sredneaziatskoj dinastii mangitov v proizvedenijah ih istorikov (XVIII–XIX vv.) [The legitimization of the Central Asian dynasty of the Maghyts in the works of their historians (18th–19th centuries)]. Almaty, Dajk-press Publ., 2004. 516 p. (In Russian)
  32. Maslyuzhenko D.N. Etnopoliticheskaya istoriya lesostepnogo Pritobol’ya v srednie veka [Ethno-political history of the forest-steppe Cis-Tobol region in the middle ages]. Kurgan, Kurgan State University Publ., 2008. 168 p. (In Russian)
  33. Maslyuzhenko D.N. Tyurko-mongol’skie traditsii v «gosudarstve kochevykh uzbekov» khana Abu-l-Khayra [Turko-Mongol Traditions in the “State of Nomadic Uzbeks” of Abu al-Khair Khan]. Zolotoordynskaya obozrenie. [The Golden Horde Review], 2014, no. 3(5), pp. 121–138. (In Russian)
  34. Maslyuzhenko D.N. Deyatel’nost’ sufiyskikh ordenov na territorii Tyumenskogo i Sibirskogo khanstv [The activities of Sufi orders in the territory of the Tyumen and the Siberian khanates]. Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Istoriya [Bulletin of the Tomsk State University. History], 2015, no. 2 (34), pp. 5–9. (In Russian)
  35. Maslyuzhenko D.N. Tjurkskie gruppy v kochev’jah Kuchumovichej v Juzhnom Zaural’e v 1600-e gg. [Turkic groups in camping-grounds of the Kuchumoviches in the southern Trans-Urals in the 1600s]. Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Istorija [Bulletin of the Tomsk State University. History], 2016, no. 3(41), pp. 5–10. (In Russian)
  36. Maslyuzhenko D.N. Jugo-Zapadnaja Sibir’ v sostave Ulusa Dzhuchi: dinastijnaja prinadlezhnost’ [South-Western Siberia as the part of the Jochid Ulus: the dynastic affiliation]. Istorija, jekonomika i kul’tura srednevekovyh tjurko-tatarskih gosudarstv Zapadnoj Sibiri. Materialy III Vserossijskoj (s mezhdunarodnym uchastiem) nauchnoj konferencii [History, economics and culture of the medieval Turkic-Tatar States of the Western Siberia. Proceedings of the III all-Russian (with international participation) scientific conference]. Kurgan, Kurgan State University Publ., 2017, pp. 15–21. (In Russian)
  37. Maslyuzhenko D.N., Samigulov G.Kh. Tyurkskie yasachnye volosti v Priiset’e v pervoy polovine XVII veka [The Turkic yasak volosts in Priisetie in the first half of the seventeenth century]. Voprosy istorii = Questions of history, 2017, no. 1, pp. 57–72. (In Russian)
  38. Maslyuzhenko D.N., Tataurov S.F. Isker kak mifologema v izuchenii istorii Sibirskogo hanstva [Isker as mythologem in the study of history of the Siberian khanate]. Zolotoordynskoe obozrenie=Golden Horde Review. 2015, no. 4, pp. 136–137. (In Russian)
  39. Maslyuzhenko D.N., Khanov S.A. Zerkala mongol’skogo i zolotoordynskogo vremeni s territorii lesostepnogo Pritobol’ya [Mirrors of the Mongol and the Golden Horde time from the territory of forest-steppe Tobol region]. Arheologija Srednego Pritobol’ja i sopredel’nyh territorij. Materialy mezhregional’nogo kruglogo stola, posvjashhennogo 50-letiju Kurganskoj arheologicheskoj jekspedicii (Kurgan, 8 dekabrja 2016 g.) [Archaeology of the Middle Cis-Tobol region and adjacent territories. Materials of interregional round table dedicated to the 50th anniversary of the Kurgan archaeological expedition (Kurgan, December 8, 2016)]. Kurgan, Publishing house of the Kurgan State University, рр. 69–76. (In Russian)
  40. Matveev A.V., Tataurov S.F. Sibirskoe khanstvo: voenno-politicheskie aspekty istorii [The Siberian khanate: a political and military aspects of history.]. Kazan, Fan Publ., 2012. 260 p. (In Russian)
  41. Materialy po istorii kazakhskikh khanstv XV–XVIII vekov (izvlecheniya. iz persidskikh i tyurkskikh sochineniy) [Materials on the history of the Kazakh khanate in the 15th–18th centuries (extracts from the Persian and Turkic writings)]. Suleymenov B. [otv. red.]. Alma-Ata, Nauka Publ., 1969. 655 p. (In Russian)
  42. Miller G.F. Istoriya Sibiri [History of Siberia]. Vol.I. Moscow, Vostochnay literatyra Publ., 2005. 630 p. (In Russian)
  43. Miller G.F. Istoriya Sibiri [History of Siberia]. Vol. II. Moscow, Vostochnay literatyra Publ., 2000. 796 p. (In Russian)
  44. Mirgaleev I.M. Soobshchenie Prodolzhatelya «Chingiz-name» Utemisha-khadzhi o pozdnikh Shibanids [Information of the continuator of “Chingiz-nama” by Ötemish Hajji about the late Shibanids]. Istoriya, ekonomika i kul’tura srednevekovykh tyurko-tatarskikh gosudarstv Zapadnoy Sibiri. Materialy II Vserossiyskoy nauchnoy konferentsii [History, economics and culture of the medieval Turko-Tatar States in Western Siberia. Materials of the II Russian scientific conference]. Kurgan, Kurgan State University Publ., 2014, pp. 64–66. (In Russian)
  45. Munshi Mukhammed Yusuf. Mukim-khanskaya istoriya [Mukim-Khan’s history]. Tashkent, 1956. 300 p. (In Russian)
  46. Mustakimov I.A. Svedeniya «Tavarikh-i guzida – Nusrat-name» o vladeniyakh nekotorykh dzhuchidov [Information of the “Tavarikh-i guzida – Nusrat-name” about the domains of some descendants of Jochi Khan]. Tyurkologicheskiy sbornik. 2009–2010: Tyurkskie narody Evrazii v drevnosti i srednevekov’e [Turkological collection. 2009–2010: the Turkic peoples of Eurasia in antiquity and the middle ages]. Мoscow, Eastern literature Publ., 2011, pp. 228–248. (In Russian)
  47. Nesterov A.G. Monety Ibragim hana [Coins of Ibrahim Khan]. Ural’skij sledopyt [Ural pathfinder], 1990, no. 12, pp. 29–30. (In Russian)
  48. Polnoe sobranie russkikh letopisey. Patriarshaya, ili Nikonovskaya letopis’ [Complete collection of Russian Chronicles. Patriarchal, or Nikon chronicle]. St. Peterrsburg, 1904, vol. 13. 240 p. (In Russian)
  49. Polnoe sobranie russkikh letopisey. Ustyuzhskie i vologodskie letopisi XVI—XVIII vv. [Complete Collection of Russian Chronicles. Vol. 37. Ustyug and Vologda chronicles]. Leningrad, Nauka Publ., 1982. 228 p. (In Russian)
  50. Posol’skaya kniga po svyazyam Rossii s Nogayskoy Ordoy 1489–1508 gg. [Ambassadorial book on Russia’s relations with the Nogai Horde in 1489–1508]. Moscow, Akademiya nauk SSSR Publ., 1984. 87 p. (In Russian)
  51. Posol’skie knigi po svyazyam Rossii s Nogayskoy Ordoy 1489–1549 gg. [Ambassadorial book on Russia’s relations with the Nogai Horde in 1489–1549]. Makhachkala, 1995. 356 p. (In Russian)
  52. Pochekaev R.Yu. Tsari Ordynskie. Biografii khanov i praviteley Zolotoy Ordy [The tsars of the Horde. Biographies of the khans and the rulers of the Golden Horde]. Saint-Petersburg, Eurazia, 2012. 464 p. (In Russian)
  53. Reva R.Ju. Monety Shibanidov XV veka [Coins of the Shibanids of the 15th century]. Tezisy XVII Vserossijskoj numizmaticheskoj konferencii [Abstracts of the XVII all-Russian numismatic conference]. Moscow, GIM, Triumph Print, 2013, pp. 56–58. (In Russian)
  54. Reva R.Ju. Kazarov A.A., Zajonchkovskij Ju.V. Monety hana Ibrahima [Coins of Ibrahim Khan]. Trudy Gosudarstvennogo Jermitazha. Materialy i issledovanija otdela numizmatiki [Proceedings of the State Hermitage Museum. Materials and studies of the department of numismatics]. Vol. LXXXI. St. Petersburg, State Hermitage Museum, 2017, pp. 198–211. (In Russian)
  55. de Rubruck G. Puteshestvie v Vostochnye strany [Journey to Eastern countries]. Puteshestvija v Vostochnye strany [Journey to Eastern countries]. Moscow, Mysl’, 1997, pp. 88–190. (In Russian)
  56. Russkaja istoricheskaja biblioteka, izdavaemaja Arheograficheskoj komissiej [Russian historical library, published by the archaeographic Commission], vol. 8. Saint-Peterburg, 1884. 700 p. (In Russian)
  57. Seleznev A.G., Selezneva I.A. Sibirskiy islam: regional’nyy variant religioznogo sinkretizma [Siberian Islam: regional variation in religious syncretism]. Novosibirsk, 2004, 72 p. (In Russian)
  58. Seleznev A.G., Selezneva I.A., Belich I.V. Kul’t svyatykh v sibirskom islame: spetsifika universal’nogo [The cult of the saints in the Siberian Islam: the specificity of the universal]. Moscow, Mardjani Publ., 2009. 216 p. (In Russian)
  59. Sobolev V.I. Rasprostranenie islama v Sibiri [The spread of Islam in Siberia]. Islam, obshhestvo i kul’tura: Materialy Mezhdunarodnoj nauchnoj konferencii: Islamskaja civilizacija v preddverii XXI veka (K 600-letiju islama v Sibiri) [Islam, society, and culture: proceedings of the International conference: Islamic civilization on the eve of the 21st century (600th anniversary of Islam in Siberia)]. Omsk, ТОО “Repro-text”, 1994, pp. 140–142. (In Russian)
  60. Sobolev V.I. Istorija sibirskih hanstv (po arheologicheskim materialam) [The history of Siberian khanates (on archaeological materials)]. Novosibirsk, Science, 2008. 356 p. (In Russian)
  61. Sobranie gosudarstvennyh gramot i dogovorov, hranjashhihsja v Gosudarstvennoj kollegii inostrannyh del [Collection of state charters and treaties, stored in the State Collegium of foreign affairs]. Part 2. Moscow, 1819. 643 p. (In Russian)
  62. Tataurov S.F., Korusenko M.A. Istorija islama v Zapadnoj Sibiri: mezhdisciplinarnyj podhod k hronologii i periodizacii [History of Islam in Western Siberia: a multidisciplinary approach to the chronology and periodization]. Bylye gody [Past years], 2015, vol. 38, part 4, pp. 798–807. (In Russian)
  63. Trepavlov V.V. Sibirskiy yurt posle Ermaka: Kuchum i Kuchumovichi v bor’be za revansh [The Siberian Yurt after Ermak: Kuchum and the Kuchumuvoches in the struggle for revenge]. Moscow, Vostochnay literatyra Publ., 2012. 231 p. (In Russian)
  64. Ötemish Hajji. Chingiz-name. Alma-Ata, Gylym Publ., 1992. 296 p. (In Russian)
  65. Fisher I.E. Sibirskaya istoriya s samogo otkrytiya Sibiri do zavoevaniya sey zemli Rossiyskim oruzhiem [Siberian history from the discovery of Siberia to the conquest of this land by Russian weapons]. St. Petersburg, At the Imperial Academy of Sciences, 1774. 631 p. (In Russian)
  66. Schiltberger I. Puteshestvie po Evrope, Azii i Afrike s 1394 goda po 1427 god [Journey through Europe, Asia and Africa from 1394 po 1427]. Baku, Elm, 1984, pp. 35–36. (In Russian)
  67. Yurchenko A.G. Khan Uzbek. Mezhdu imperiey i islamom (struktury povsed­nevnosti). Kniga-konspekt [Uzbek Khan. Between the Empire and Islam (patterns of everyday life). Compendium-book]. St. Petersburg, Eurasia Publ., 2012. 400 p. (In Russian)
  68. DeWeese D. Islamization and Native Religion in the Golden Horde: Baba Tukles and Conversion to Islam in Historical and Epic Tradition. Pennsylvania, University Press. 1994. 638 p.
  69. DeWeese D. The Descendants of Sayyid Ata and the Rank of Naqib in Central Asia. Journal of the American Oriental Society, 115. 4 (1995), pp. 619–634.

About the author: Denis N. Maslyuzhenko – Cand. Sci. (History), Associate Professor, Director of the Institute of Humanities, Kurgan State University (63, building 4, Sovetskaya Str., Kurgan 640020, Russian Federation). E-mail: denmas13@yandex.ru

Received  December 13, 2018   Accepted for publication  February 25, 2019
Published online  March 29, 2019