2021, vol. 9, no. 2. Bakhtin A.G.
2021, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 395-422
Mari State University
Yoshkar-Ola, Russian Federation
Abstract: Research objectives: To trace the fate of the sixteenth-century aristocrats from the Mansur kin of the Crimean Manghits, namely the brothers Baki, Khoja-Akhmed, Ak-Bibi, and Divei. To identify their role in political events in Eastern Europe and to establish the circumstances of the capture, stay in captivity, and the death of Divei – the most famous of these brothers.
Research materials: Chronicles, Razriad books, diplomatic documents, folklore, and secondary materials of historical research.
Results and novelty of the research: The author traced the fate of the brothers from the noble Maghit kin of Mansur, namely Baki, Khoja-Akhmed, Ak-Bibi and Divei, three of whom became Qarachi-beks in Crimea. They participated in the political life of Crimea, the Nogai Horde, Astrakhan, Azov, the Russian state, Hungary, and Iran. Prince Divei was a typical steppe bagatur, a seeker of fame and fortune, as well as an active enemy of the Russian State. He repeatedly raided the Russian lands and displayed outstanding abilities as a commander. He was aggressive, brave, determined, and cruel. In 1572, he commanded the Crimean troops in the Battle of Molodino and was captured by the Russians. The capture of their commander was one of the reasons for the defeat of the Crimeans. This event once more saved the Russian state from external dependence. Devlet-Girei Khan made considerable efforts to free the Qarachi-bek during the battle, but these were in vain. Attempts to redeem or exchange the prisoner were likewise in vain. Ivan the Terrible was aware of the threat posed by this figure and did not want to free his noble prisoner. In 1576, the death of Prince Divei was announced in Moscow. Historiography calls into question his death in 1575. There is an opinion that Divei was baptized and entered the service of Ivan the Terrible under the name of Daniil-murza. In this article, the author contends that those historians who compared Divei with Daniil-murza approached the issue superficially, not considering all the sources, and therefore came to the wrong conclusions. These began to be repeated in subsequent publications. Prince Divei and Daniil-murza were different persons. Divei did not agree to accept Orthodoxy and was executed. The elimination of the famous military leader from its political life contributed to a decrease in the aggression of the Crimean Khanate towards Russia as well as the destabilization of the political situation in Crimea.
Keywords: Manghits, Qarachi-bek, Baki, Khodja-Akhmed, Ak-Bibi, Divei, Daniil-murza, raids, battle of Molodino, captivity, execution
For citation: Bakhtin A.G. The Life and Death of the Manghit Qarachi-bek, Divei. Zolotoordynskoe obozrenie=Golden Horde Review. 2021, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 395–422. DOI: 10.22378/2313-6197.2021-9-2.395-422
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About the author: Alexander G. Bakhtin – Dr. Sci. (History), Professor of the Department of General Scientific Disciplines and Methods of Their Teaching of the Mari State University (44, Kremlevskaya Str., Yoshkar-Ola 424002, Russian Federation)
Received March 13, 2021 Accepted for publication May 20, 2021
Published Online June 29, 2021