2019, vol. 7, no. 3. Penskoy V.V., Penskaya T.M.
2019, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 524-544
V.V. Penskoy 1, T.M. Penskaya 2
1, 2 Belgorod State National Research University
Belgorod, Russian Federation
Abstract: Research objectives: To study of the causes of the aggravation of Russian-Crimean relations in the middle of the sixteenth century and the beginning of the full-scale Russian-Crimean war of 1552–1577 (“The War of the Two Tsars”) in the context of international relations in Eastern Europe in the 1540–50s.
Research materials: A large collection of documentary and narrative sources of Russian, Lithuanian and Turkish origin (chronicles, razryad and ambassadorial books, act materials).
Results and novelty of the research: In June 1552, Crimean Khan Devlet-Giray I tried to capture the Russian border town of Tula. This campaign was the beginning of the 25-year undeclared Russian-Crimean War – the period of the most acute, “hot” confrontation between the Russian state and the Crimean Khanate. The war was the result of the accumulation of a critical mass of disagreements between Russia and the Crimea in the previous decades. Crimea was not enthusiastic about the strengthening of Moscow at the expense of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Moscow was against attempts to reestablish the Golden Horde under the control of the Crimean ruling dynasty. The impossibility of reconciling the fundamentally conflicting political interests of the two states led to a transition from an alliance at the beginning of the sixteenth century to open conflict in the middle of the century. The immediate reasons for the transition from the cold war to the hot war were the attempts of Crimea to establish its control over Kazan and Astrakhan and, subsequently, over the Nogai Horde. These actions met opposition from Moscow which began a war with Kazan in order to restore its influence there. The desire to support Kazan led to the campaign of Devlet Giray against Tula in the summer of 1552.
Keywords: Eastern Europe, Early Modern Times, Russian State, Crimean Khanate, Kazan Khanate, Nogai Horde, Ivan IV, Devlet-Giray I, Russian-Tatar wars
For citation: Penskoy V.V., Penskaya T.M. The “Great Game” in Eastern Europe: The Tula Campaign of Devlet-Giray I in Summer 1552 and the Beginning of the “War of the Two Tsars”. Zolotoordynskoe obozrenie=Golden Horde Review. 2019, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 524–544. DOI: 10.22378/2313-6197.2019-7-3.524-544
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About the authors: Vitaly V. Penskoy – Dr. Sci. (History), Professor of the Department of Theory and History of State and Law, Law Institute, Belgorod State National Research University (85, Pobeda Str., Belgorod 308012, Russian Federation). E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Tatyana M. Penskaya – Cand. Sci. (History), Assistant Professor of the Department of Theory and History of State and Law, Law Institute, Belgorod State National Research University (85, Pobeda Str., Belgorod 308012, Russian Federation). E-mail: email@example.com
Received July 19, 2019 Accepted for publication August 29, 2019
Published online September 29, 2019