№ 2 2013
Historical studies are based on the assumption that there is a reference-starting point of the space-time continum– the zero point of the coordinate system. Due to the bifurcation in the Zero Point, the course of social processes changes sharply and the probabilistic causality replaces the deterministic one. For this reason changes occur in the structure of social relations and statehood form as well as in the course of the ethnic processes. In such a way emerges a new discourse of national behavior. With regard to the history of the Tatars and Tatarstan, such bifurcation points occurred in the periods of the formation of the Turkic Khaganate, of the Volga–Kama Bulgaria and of the Golden Horde. Despite the radical changes, the Russian Empire failed to transform the Tatars in Russians. Therefore the modern Tatars preserved the Golden Horde tradition as a cultural invariant.
Keywords: Tatars, Volga–Kama Bulgaria, Golden Horde, Russia, Zero point of history, historical time.
About the author: Rafael Sibgatovich Khakimov – Director, Sh.Marjani Institute of History, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan (AS RT), Vice-president of AS RT, Academician of AS RT, Doctor of historical studies (Kazan, Russian Federation); email@example.com
OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH
The Middle Volga-Kama region played a special role in Russian history. From ancient times this region was an important point for economic and commercial interests of Eastern and Western Europe as well as of the Oriental regions. The Volga-Kama region was affected in one degree or another by the global events of world history – the creation of world empires, such as the Turkic Khanate or the Golden Horde.
The key moment of the regional history was the formation of the Volga Bulgaria state in the 10th century. It was a culture formed in the centre of the Volga-Kama region, which for more than two centuries determined the priorities in trade, economics, politics and cultural innovations.
The system of settled communities of different organizational levels based on ethno-cultural characteristics of the local population was formed in the Volga Bulgar at different times.
In the middle of the 11th century, Islam became the prevailing religion of the Volga Bulgarian population playing an important role in the development of the economic and political foundations of the state.
The main development line of the Bulgarian material culture in the 11th–12th centuries was the displacement of ethnic preferences in standardized manufacture within the framework of public handcrafts and prevailing development of the most flexible elements of different ethnic culture. A new ethnos appeared to depend on its ethnic components and its development was largely determined by the initial substrate basis. The stability of this ethnosystem was determined by ethno-cultural tolerance.
Keywords: Volga Bulgaria, Ancient Russia, archaeology, history, nomadism, вulgarians, migration, sedentism, Bilyar, Bolghar, slavery.
About the author: Konstantin Aleksandrovich Rudenko – Professor at Kazan State University of Culture and Arts, Doctor of historical studies (Kazan, Russian Federation); firstname.lastname@example.org
DURING THE MONGOL INVASION OF CENTRAL ASIA
This article examines the features of formation and functioning of the Khwarezmian army of Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu during the period of the Mongol conquest of Central Asia. In addition to a detailed analysis of a military clash between the Mongol and Khwarezmian armies, the author determines the size and ethnic composition of the Jalal ad-Din’s army. The article considers the reflection by the Arab-Persian sources both of the military confrontation between Khwarezmians and Mongols and of the Khwarezmian army itself. The author defines the amount of information on this subject contained in the sources.
Keywords: Khwarezm, Mongols, Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu, Arab-Persian Sources.
About the author: Dmitry Mikhailovich Timokhin – Docent, National Research University “Higher School of Economics”, Kandidat nauk (scientific degree) in historical studies (Moscow, Russian Federation); email@example.com
Sabitov Zh.M., Kushkumbaev A.K.
IN THE 13TH–14TH CENTURIES: TO THE QUESTION
OF THE LOCATION OF THE AK AND KOK HORDES
This paper discusses the problem of the localization of the Ak Horde and Kok Horde. Based on interpretating new sources, the authors provide their own version of the Ak and Kok Hordes’ localation. The article also addresses the issue of the Boz Horde and its relation to the uluses of Shiban and Shibanids. The authors argue in favor of the version that is close to the Chingiz-name providing a critical analysis of different sources on the localtion of the Ak and Kok Hordes. In addition, the article presents arguments in favor of the identification of Ak Horde as the center of the Ulus of Jochi, defining the Kok and the Boz Hordes as its left and right wings respectively.
Keywords: Golden Horde, Ak Horde, Kok Horde, Shibanids, Boz Horde, Ulus of Jochi.
About the authors: Zhaksylyk Muratovich Sabitov – Associate Professor, Political Science Department, L.N.Gumilev Eurasian National University, PhD (Astana, Kazakhstan); firstname.lastname@example.org
Aybolat Kayrslyamovich Kushkumbaev – Senior Research Fellow, Scientific Research Centre «Eurasia», L.N. Gumilev Eurasian National University, Doctor of historical studies (Astana, Kazakhstan); email@example.com
This study focuses on the relations between the Volyn principality of Liubartas-Dmitry and the Ulus of Jochi under the rule of Janybek Khan. Liubartas-Dmitry ascended the throne of the Eastern Volyn largely due to the will of Uzbek Khan. The Land of Berestia together with the Eastern Volyn was the Liubartas’ appanage land in Volyn. As Boleslaw-Yuri II, Liubartas-Dmitry was compelled to pay tribute to the Tatars. During the War of the Galicia-Volyn legacy, Liubartas acted as a vassal of the Ulus of Jochi and ally of Uzbek Khan. Liubartas’ relations with Janybek Khan were fundamentally different from his previous relations with Uzbek Khan. Casimir III enjoyed greater sympathy of the Golden Horde khan due to the payment of tribute. Except for the campaign of 1351–1352, Janybek was hostile towards Lithuania. Only the common hostility of the Poles and Hungarians towards the Volyn and Podolia forced the khan of Ulus of Jochi to intervene on the side of the Lithuanians. For Janibek the western vector of his foreign policy was not a priority. He could accept the loss of a tribute from several Slavic principalities in exchange for success on other fronts, more profitable in terms of the spoils of war. Unlike the Koriatoviches and Olelkoviches, the Gediminoviches of Volyn were more peacefully disposed towards the Tatars since during the “Great Disorder” their land-holdings did not increase at the expense of Jochid possessions.
Keywords: Janybek Khan, Uzbek Khan, Ulus of Jochi, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Liubartas-Dmitry, Tatars.
About the author: Yaroslav Valentinovich Pilipchuk – Junior Researcher, Department of Eurasian Steppe, A.Yu. Krymsky Institute of Oriental Studies, National Academy of Sicences of Ukraine, Kandidat nauk (scientific degree) in historical studies (Kiev, Ukraine); firstname.lastname@example.org
CARTOGRAPHY OF THE 15TH–18TH CENTURIES (2)
The article presents the development of the European cartography of Eurasia as a reflection of the gradual accumulation of geographic and ethnographic information about the people and the state, which historical destiny was directly connected with the formation and subsequent dissolution of Genghis Khan’s empire. The author traces the gradual increase of information on eastern regions among western cartographers, which however consistently compared the strengthened Russian State with the “Tartar kingdoms”. The author emphasizes as well the importance of the information provided by the European maps for the study of the state structure of the Golden Horde, of the formation of the new Eurasian nations and of Russia’s relations with the Tatar states.
Keywords: legacy of the Mongol Empire, topography of the Golden Horde, European cartography, Muscovy, cultural stereotypes.
About the author: Igor Konstantinovich Fomenko – Senior Research Fellow, State Historical Museum, Kandidat nauk (scientific degree) in historical studies (Moscow, Russian Federation); email@example.com
* Ending of the article. Beginning see: Golden Horde Review, 2013, no. 1, pp. 82–95.
THE DISPUTE OVER CONCLUSION OF THE AGREEMENT:
BASED ON NEW DOCUMENTS (2)*
The article examines the period of transition of the territory of Crimea under protectorate of the Ottoman Empire. Recently in the archives of the Topkapi Palace Museum have been discovered new documents on the history of the Golden Horde containing the letters of the Crimean khans and Beys. On the basis of new historical sources, the author clarifies the contentious issues related to the agreement between Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror and Mengli I Giray and reveals the reasons that influenced the way the Crimea became subservient to the Ottoman Empire.
Keywords: expansion of the Ottoman Empire, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Northern Black Sea, Crimean Khanate, new sources on the history of the Golden Horde.
About the author: Halil İnalcık – Professor, Bilkent University; Doctor of historical studies (Ankara, Turkey); firstname.lastname@example.org
* Continuation of the article. Beginning see: Golden Horde Review, 2013, no. 1, pp. 147–163.
Iskhakov D.M., Tychinskikh Z.A.
OF THE ULUS OF JOCHI
The authors discuss the problem related to the Shibanids’ presence on the territory of the Bulgar Vilayet of the Ulus of Jochi in the 13th–14th centuries. Analysis of the various sources of Turko-Tatar, Mongolian and Russian origin (chronicles, dastans, genealogies, etc.) allowed the authors to conclude that the transition of the territory of the Volga Bulgar (from the city of Bilyar to the east) under the Shibanid authority occurred at the time of the Mongol conquest in 13th century. It is therefore in the future (up to the end of the 15th century) the Shibanids and related clans could claim authority not only in the Bulgar Vilayet, but also in the Kazan Khanate, which arose on its ground.
Keywords: Shibanids, Ulus of Jochi, Bulgar Vilayet, Khanate of Kazan, Khanate of Tyumen.
About the authors: Damir Mavlyaveevich Iskhakov – Chief Research Fellow, Sh.Marjani Institute of History, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan, Doctor of historical studies (Kazan, Russian Federation); email@example.com
Zaytuna Aptrashitovna Tychinskikh – Docent, D.I. Mendeleev Tobolsk State Social and Pedagogical Academy, Kandidat nauk (scientific degree) in historical studies (Tobolsk, Russian Federation); firstname.lastname@example.org
The article contains a biography of Aq-Muhammad-oglan – politician and military commander who was active in Kazan and Crimean Khanates in the 1540–1570’s while the members of his family were removed to Moscow in 1551. The biography is based on the documents of Moscow, Kazan and Crimean origin.
Keywords: Khanate of Kazan, Khanate of Crimea, Aq-Muhammаd, Moscow.
About the author: Ilya Vladimirovich Zaytsev – Principal Research Fellow, Institute of Russian History, Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Oriental Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of historical studies (Moscow, Russian Federation); email@example.com
IN THE ACCOUNTS OF THE GENOESE TREASURY OF CAFFA, 1420s
Four account books of the Genoese colony in Caffa kept in 1420–1426 by its treasurers (massarii) are still unpublished as a whole. Almost four hundreds records in these manuscripts deal with the Tartar-Genoese relations and the political situation in Crimea. Combined with the numismatic data and evidences from chronicles and state correspondence they let the author to ascertain up to weeks and days the chronology of khans’ reign. After the death of the first Crimean khan Bek Sufi in 1421 his brother Dawlat Berdi (the kinship became evident from these records) struggled for power with his cousin Ulugh Muhammed, khan of the Golden Horde, for six years and climbed to the Solhat throne four times. The newly obtained information proves that neither Bek Sufi nor Dawlat Berdi, cannot be treated as the khans of the Golden Horde. They were two of the first members of the Tukatimurid dynasty which came to power in Crimea. The separatism and the might of the Crimean tribal beks were a real reason and basis for forming this independent khanate. The same beks reestablished the dynasty in 1441 having invited to the throne Haji Giray, nephew of both khans, who gave his name to the dynasty of the state, established in 1419.
It was necessary to use original Latin texts to understand the history that accompaied the research.
Keywords: Manuscripts, medieval book-keeping, Massaria Caffe, numismatics, political history, genealogy, Golden Horde, Khanat of Qrim, Caffa, Genova, Beg Sufi, Dawlat Berdi, Ulug Muhammad, Edigey.
About the author: Andrey Leonidovich Ponomarev – Leading Research Fellow, Department of Medieval Studies, Faculty of History, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Doctor of historical studies (Moscow, Russian Federation); firstname.lastname@example.org
AS A HISTORICAL SOURCE (2)
This article contains a concise representation of the most challenging issues of the medieval Oriental numismatics. The author emphasizes the importance of the numismatic information for the study of the economic situation in the states and in some regions, of the dynamics of commodity-money relations, of the nature of the monetary policy pursued by the authorities, of the structure of money circulation in the states, of the administrative structure of the states and its changes over time, of the political declaration of power by issuers of coins, of the religious policy of the states, of the sequence and chronology of the reigns, and of many other aspects of Oriental history. In parallel, the article points to some limitations of numismatics as a historical source. The author points to the impossibility to formulate patterned approaches, rules, and regulations, which observance in numismatic research would always lead to obtaining all necessary and standardized information. Numismatic objects are polyparametric, and in most cases their parameters appear to be informative and may be disclosed only in specific historical situations of the particular historical periods and of the particular states.
Keywords: medieval Oriental numismatics, coin legends, coins issuer and title, metal used in coins, mint, dating of the coins, images on the coins, coin cartouche, religious symbols, tamgas.
About the author: Pavel Nikolaevich Petrov – Research Fellow, Usmanov Center for Research on the Golden Horde History, Sh.Marjani Institute of History, Academy of
* Ending of the article. Beginning see: Golden Horde Review, 2013, no. 1, pp. 177–206.
The author examines the foreign policy of the Golden Horde in relation to the Ilkhanate of Persia in the 13th–14th centuries. The basics of the Golden Horde foreign policy towards Hulaguids were laid down during the reign of Berke Khan and remained a priority until the collapse of the Ilkhanate.
Keywords: Golden Horde, Ulus of Jochi, Ilkhanate, Hulaguids, Mongol Empire, international relations, geopolitics, foreign policy, Chingisids, kuriltai, Mongol States.
About the author: Il’nur Midkhatovich Mirgaleev – Head of the Usmanov Center for Research on the Golden Horde History, Sh.Marjani Institute of History, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan, Kandidat nauk (scientific degree) in historical studies (Kazan, Russian Federation); email@example.com