2019, vol. 7, no. 2. Tishin V.V.

2019, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 295-317

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22378/2313-6197.2019-7-2.295-317


V.V. Tishin
Institute for Mongolian, Buddhist and Tibetan Studies
of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Ulan-Ude, Russian Federation

Abstract: Research objectives: This article discusses some issues related to the problem of the relationship between the concepts of the “Golden Horde”, the “White Horde”, and the “Blue Horde”, with an emphasis on the term “horde” itself – both as a scientific definition and as a historical concept related to the phonetic forms in which it situated in the sources. The author proposes to reveal the original meaning of the term ordo ~ orda and to outline the stages of expansion of its semantics with the delineation of semantic fields.
Research materials: The article may be considered largely as a kind of commentary on the research of recent years. Since all materials on the affected issues have been known to researchers for a long time, the selection of sources looks proverbially traditional. These are Mongolic, Chinese, Latin, Muslim (Arabic and Persian), and Old Russian texts containing the word ordo in its various forms. The author did not use the whole body of sources, but rather the most illustrative materials in his opinion. Mostly, the linguistic material was employed which comprises the lexical basis for researching specific languages.
Research results and novelty: In the process of researching the contexts of using of the term ordo ~ orda in various sources and different orthographic variants (corresponding to phonetic ones), the author came to the following contention. Secondary senses reflecting one of the aspects of the original sense evolved from the basic meaning recorded among thirteenth-century Mongols – “the abiding-place of a ruler, his family, his entourage, and all the attendants”. Since the development took place in parallel, this did not exclude the words being used with different intended meanings in the same texts, which can be revealed only as a result of the analysis of the context. The contexts of the use of the term in the sources make it possible to assert that there was a process of expansion of the term’s original mea­ning, reflected in the perception of different authors being representatives of foreign cultures. This occurs in the period after the middle of the fourteenth century, being directly caused by the events of political history of the Jochid ulus as it was plunged into an era of trouble. Also, the emergence of additional senses associated with the concept of territory was the result of a comprehension of the word in related contexts within the worldview specific for sedentary cultures. The author of the article accepts the point to identity the terms “Golden Horde” and “White Horde”, both contrasted with the concept “Blue Horde”, originally associated respectively with the designation of the domains of the descendants of Batu in the western part, and the descendants of Urdu in the eastern part, of the Jochid ulus. In addition, it is recognized that the hypothesis on the correlation of these color markers with the traditional geosymbolism of the Turkic and Mongolian peoples is not sufficiently substantiated although it is theoretically permissible. The fact that the term ordo ~ orda with both color markers of “gold” and “white” was more often associated with the sense “qan’s tent”, corresponds with the source data on similar epithets for tents of different qans. Historically, the possession of such tent was typical for certain leaders, at least in the Mongolian tradition, but from an early age it had come to be claimed as the attribute of the ru­lers of the Jochid ulus primarily. Nonetheless, a solid identification of the relationship bet­ween the concepts “golden” and “white” requires special research.

Кеywords: Jochid Ulus, Golden Horde, White Horde, Blue Horde, semantic

Acknowledgements: The author would like to express sincere thanks to Q.Z. Uskenbay for taking the trouble to familiarize himself with the preliminary version of this work and made a number of valuable comments. Also, the author is grateful to R. Hautala for valuable comments on the use of the term ordo in Latin sources.

For citation: Tishin V.V. Once again on the Meaning of the Term “Horde” and the Categories “Golden Horde”, “White Horde”, “Blue Horde”. Zolotoordynskoe obozrenie=Golden Horde Review. 2019, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 295–317. (in Russian). DOI: 10.22378/2313-6197.2019-7-2.295-317

* The study was carried out as part of the Integrated Program for Basic Research of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences XII.191.1.2. Intercultural interaction, ethnic and socio-political processes in Central Asia, № АААА-А17-117021310264-4.


  1. Arakin V.D. Tyurkskiye leksicheskiye elementy v pamyatnikakh russkogo yazyka mongolskogo perioda [Turkic Lexical Elements in Russian Language Monuments of Mongol Period]. Tyurkizmy v vostochnoslavyanskikh yazykakh [Turkisms in East Slavic Languages]. N.A. Baskakov (ed.). Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1974, pp. 112–147. (In Russian)
  2. Barbaro i Kontarini o Rossii. K istorii italo-russkikh svyazey v 15 v. [Barbaro and Contarini about Russia. On the Italo-Russian Relations in the 15thcentury]. E.Ch. Skrzhin­skaya (Introd., trans., comment). Leningrad: Nauka Publ., 1971. 275 p. (In Russian)
  3. Blagova G.F. Opyt arealnogo izucheniya tyurkizmov (ordu||orda, saray, koshk||kiosk v tyurkskikh yazykakh, v russkom, ukrainskom) [An Attempt toof Areal Study of Turkisms (ordu||orda, saray, koshk||kiosk in Turkic Languages, in Russian, in Ukrainian)]. Sovetskaya tyurkologiya [Soviet Turcology], 1975, no. 4, pp. 37–45. (In Russian)
  4. Bogatova G.A. Zolotaya Orda [Golden Horde]. Russkaya rech [Russian Speech], 1970, no. 1, pp. 70–77. (In Russian)
  5. Vernadskiy G.V. Mongoly i Rus [The Mongols and Rus]. Tver: LEAN; Moscow: AGRAF, 1997. 480 p. (In Russian)
  6. Gorskiy A.A. Moskva i Orda [Moscow and the Horde]. Moscow: Nauka Publ., 2003. 214 p. (In Russian)
  7. Drevnetyurkskiy slovar [Old Turkic Vocabulary]. V.M. Nadelyayev, D.M. Na­silov, E.R. Tenishev, A.M. Shcherbak (eds.). Leningrad: Nauka Publ., 1969. XXXVIII, 714 p. (In Russian)
  8. Dybo A.V. Lingvisticheskiye kontakty rannikh tyurkov. Leksicheskiy fond. Pratyurkskiy period [Linguistic Contacts of Early Turks: A Lexical Fund. Proto-Turkic period]. Moscow: Vostochnaya literature Publ., 2007. 222 p. (In Russian)
  9. Dybo A.V. Materialnyy byt rannikh tyurok. Zhilishche [Material Life of Early Turks. Dwelling]. Prirodnoye okruzheniye i materialnaya kultura pratyurkskikh narodov [The Natural Environment and Material Culture of the Proto-Turkic peoples]. A.V. Dybo (ed.). Moscow: Vostochnaya literatura, 2008, pp. 219–272. (In Russian)
  10. Egorov V.L. Istoricheskaya geografiya Zolotoy Ordy v 13–14 vv. [Historical Geo­graphy of the Golden Horde in the 13th–14thcenturies]. Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1985, 245 p. (In Russian)
  11. Istoriya Kazakhstana v persidskikh istochnikakh [A History of Kazakhstan in Persian Sources]. Vol. 3. Mu‘izz al-ansab (Proslavlyayushcheye genealogii) [Mu‘izz al-Ansab (Praising Genealogies)]. Sh.Kh. Vokhidov (trans., comment.), U.A. Utepbergenova (Index), A.K. Muminov (ed.). Almaty: Dayk-Press, 2006. 672 p. (In Russian)
  12. Klyashtornyi S.G.. Sultanov T. I. Kazakhstan: letopis trekh tysyacheletiy [Kazakhstan: A Chronicle of Three Thousand Years]. Alma-Ata: Rauan, 1992. 382 p. (In Russian)
  13. Kormushin I.V. Drevniye tyurkskiye yazyki: ucheb. posobiye [Old Turkic Languages: A Syllabus]. Abakan: Khakasskiy gosudarstvennyy universitet im. N.F. Katanova, 2004, 336 p. (In Russian)
  14. Kushkumbayev A.K. “Bolat bosaghaly Boz ordany Shäybanghä saldy”: “Yuz Orda” ili “Boz Orda” v vostochnykh istochnikakh [“Bolat bosaghaly Boz ordany Shäybanghä saldy”: “Yuz Orda” or “Boz Orda” in Oriental Sources]. 13 Faizkhanovskiye chteniya. Naslediye Zolotoy Ordy v gosudarstvennosti i kulturnykh traditsiyakh narodov Evrazii: materialy mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii. Sankt-Peterburg. 4–6 maya 2016 g. [13thFaizkhanov Readings: Proceedings of International Scientific-Practical Conference, St. Petersburg, May 4–6, 2016]. D.V. Mukhetdinov (introd.). V.V. Tishin (ed.). Moscow: Medina, 2017, pp. 26–53. (In Russian)
  15. Kushkumbayev A.K. Termin “Orda” v kochevykh imperiyakh Tsentralnoy Azii (domongolskoye vremya) [A Term “Orda” in Nomadic Empires of Central Asia]. Zolotoordynskaya tsivilizatsiya=Golden Horde Civilization, 2017, no 10, pp. 84–91. (InRussian)
  16. Kychanov E.I. “Istoriya dinastii Yuan” (“Yuan shi”) o Zolotoy Orde [“History of Yuan Dynasty” (“Yuan Shi”) on the Golden Horde]. Istoriografiya i istochnikovedeniye istorii stran Azii i Afriki [A Historiography and Study of Sources of Countries of Asia and Africa]. St. Petersburg: St. Petersburg State University Publ., 2000. Vol. 19. B.N. Mel­nichenko, B.M. Novikova (eds.), pp. 146–157. (In Russian)
  17. Kychanov E.I. Svedeniya iz “Istorii dinastii Yuan” (“Yuan shi”) o Zolotoy Orde [A Data of the “History of Yuan Dynasty” (“Yuan Shi”)]. Istochnikovedeniye istorii Ulusa Dzhuchi (Zolotoy Ordy). Ot Kalki do Astrakhani. 1223–1556 [A Study of Sources on the History of the Jochid Ulus (Golden Horde). From Kalka to Astrakkhan. 1223–1556]. M.A. Usmanov (ed.). Kazan: Marjani Institute of History of Tatarstan Academy of Scien­ces, 2001, pp. 30–42. (In Russian)
  18. Lin Kung-yi. Munkuyev N.Ts. “Kratkiye svedeniya o chernykh tatarakh” Pen Da-ya i Syuy Tina [“A Brief Report on the Black Tatars” by Peng Da-Ya and Xu Ting]. Problemy vostokovedeniya [Problems of Oriental Studies], 1960, no 5, pp. 133–158. (In Russian)
  19. Lyzlov A.I. Skifskaya istoriya [A Scythian History]. E.V. Chistyakova (ed.), A.P. Bogdanov (comment., index). Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1990. 519 p. (In Russian)
  20. Malov S.E. Pamyatniki drevnetyurkskoy pismennosti. Teksty i issledovaniya [Monuments of Old Turkic Writing. Texts and Analysis]. Moscow; Leningrad: Akademiya nauk SSSR Publ., 1951. 451. (1) p. (In Russian)
  21. Materialy po istorii syunnu (po materialam kitayskikh istochnikov) [Materials on the History of Xiongnu (Based on Chinese Sources)]. V.S. Taskin (introd., trans., notes). Vol. 1. Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1968. 283 p. (In Russian)
  22. Materialy po istorii syunnu (po materialam kitayskikh istochnikov) [Materials on the History of Xiongnu (Based on Chinese Sources)]. V.S. Taskin (introd., trans., notes). Vol. 2. Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1973. 170 p. (In Russian)
  23. Materialy po istorii turkmen i Turkmenii [Materials on the History of the Turkmen and Turkmenia]. Vol. 1. Arabskiye i persidskiye istochniki. (6–15 vv.) [Arabic and Persian Sources (6th–15th centuries)]. S.L. Volin, A.A. Romaskevich (eds.). Moscow; Leningrad: Akademiya nauk SSSR, 1939. 612 p. (In Russian)
  24. Maḥmūd al-Kāšgharī. Dīwān Luγāt at–Turk (Svod tyurkskikh slov) [Dīwān Luγāt al–Turk (A Compendium of Turkic Words)]. A.R. Rustamov (trans.), I.V. Kormushin (ed.). Vol. 1. Moscow: Vostochnaya literatura RAN. 2010. 461 p. (In Russian)
  25. Mitroshkina A.G. Termin “Zolotaya Orda” [A Term “Golden Horde”]. Trudy Irkutskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta [Proceedings of the Irkutsk State University], 1969, vol. 65, Liguistical Series, no 4, pp. 25–32. (In Russian)
  26. Mustakimov I.A. Eshche raz k voprosu o tsvetooboznacheniyakh Ord v Uluse Dzhuchi (termin Boz-Orda v istochnikakh 16–19 vv.) [Once Again to the Question of the Hordes’ Color Terms in the Ulus of Jochi (The Boz Horde Term in the Sources of the 16th–19th Centuries)]. Zolotoordynskoye obozreniye=Golden Horde Review, 2015, no 2, pp. 129–149. (In Russian)
  27. Parunin A.V. Svedeniya ob Ak-Orde i Kok-Orde v svete ustnoy istoricheskoy traditsii [An Information on Ak Orda and Kok Orda in the Light of Oral Tradition]. Zolotaya Orda: istoriya i kulturnoye naslediye: sbornik nauchnykh materialov [The Golden Horde: A History and Cultural Heritage]. A.K. Kushkumbayev (ed.). Astana: IP “BG-print”, 2015, pp. 51–61. (In Russian)
  28. Polnoye sobraniye russkikh letopisey [Complete Collection of Russian Chronicles]. Vol. 19. Istoriya o Kazanskom tsarstve (Kazanskiy Letopisets) [A History of the Kazan Kingdom (Kazan Chronicler)]. St. Petersburg: Tipography of I.N. Skorokhdov, 1903. XVI. 530 p. (In Russian)
  29. Polnoye sobraniye russkikh letopisey [Complete Collection of Russian Chronicles]. Vol. 27. 2nd Nikanorovskaya letopis. Sokrashchennyye letopisnyye svody kontsa 15 v. [Nicanor Chronicle. Abridged Chronicles of the end of the 15thcentury]. Moscow: Yazyki slavyanskikh kultur, 2004. ix, 436 p. (In Russian)
  30. Radloff W. Opyt slovarya tyurkskikh narechiy [A Temptative Dictionary of Turkic Dialects]. Vol. 1. Glasnyye [Vowels]. Pt. 2. St. Petersburg: Tipografiya Imperatorskoy Akademii nauk, 1893. Lines 969–1914, 66 p. (In Russian)
  31. Rashid al-Din. Sbornik letopisey [A Compendium of Chronicles]. Vol. 1. Book 2. O.I. Smirnov (trans.). Moscow; Leningrad: Akademiya nauk SSSR, 1952. 315 p. (InRussian)
  32. Rashid al-Din. Sbornik letopisey [A Compendium of Chronicles]. Vol. 2. Yu.P. Ver­khovskiy (trans.). Moscow; Leningrad: Akademiya nauk SSSR, 1960. 260 p. (In Russian)
  33. Sabitov Zh.M., Kushkumbayev A.K. Terminy Ak-Orda i Kok-Orda v pismennykh i ustnykh istochnikakh (k voprosu o semantike terminov) [Terms Ak Orda and Kok Orda in Written and Oral Sources (on the Problem of Semantics of Terms)]. Nauchnyy Tatarstan [Scientific Tatarstan], 2015, no 3, pp. 33–42. (In Russian)
  34. Sevortyan E.V. Etimologicheskiy slovar tyurkskikh yazykov (Obshchetyurkskiye i mezhtyurkskiye osnovy na glasnyye) [An Etymological Dictionary of Turkic Languages (Common-Turkic and Inter-Turkic Stems Starting with Vowels)]. Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1974. 767 p. (In Russian)
  35. Sevortyan E.V. Etimologicheskiy slovar tyurkskikh yazykov. Obshchetyurkskiye i mezhtyurkskiye osnovy na bukvu “B” [An Etymological Dictionary of Turkic Languages (Common-Turkic and Inter-Turkic Stems Starting with the Letter “B”)]. Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1978. 349 p. (In Russian)
  36. Slovar russkogo yazyka 18 veka [A Dictionary of the Russian Language of the 18thcentury]. Vol. 17. OnyyOtkrutit. B.E. Birzhakova, E.D. Konoplina, Z.M. Petrova (eds.). Petersburg: Nauka Publ., 2007. 255 p. (In Russian)
  37. Sravnitelno-istoricheskaya grammatika tyurkskikh yazykov. Leksika [Comparative-Historical Grammar of Turkic Languages. Lexicon]. E.R. Tenishev (ed.). Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1997, 800 p. (2nd, expand. Moscow: Nauka Publ., 2001. 822 p.) (In Russian)
  38. Sravnitelno-istoricheskaya grammatika tyurkskikh yazykov. Pratyurkskiy yazyk-osnova. Kartina mira pratyurkskogo etnosa po dannym yazyka [Comparative-Historical Grammar of Turkic Languages. The Proto-Turkci Period]. E.R. Tenishev. A.V. Dybo (eds.). Moscow: Nauka Publ., 2006. 908 p. (In Russian)
  39. Sreznevskiy I.I. Materialy dlya slovarya drevnerusskogo yazyka po pismennym pamyatnikam [Materials for the Old Russian Dictionary based on Written Monuments]. Vol. 2. L–P. St. Petersburg: Tipografiya Imperatorskoy Akademii nauk, 1902. 15 p., 1802 lines, 1 p. (In Russian)
  40. Sultanov T.I. Chingiz-khan i Chingizidy. Sudba i vlast [Chinggis Khan and the Chinggisids. Fate and Power]. Moscow: AST, 2007. 448 p. (In Russian)
  41. Tishin V.V. K diskussii ob interpretatsii sochetaniya kök türk [To the Discussion over the Understanding the Combination kök türk]. Tyurkologicheskiye issledovaniya [Turkological Studies], 2018, Vol. 1, no 1, pp. 7–27. (In Russian)
  42. Trepavlov V.V. Gosudarstvennyy stroy Mongolskoy imperii 13 v.: Problema istoricheskoy preyemstvennosti [The State System of the Mongol Empire in the 13thcentury: A Problem of the Historical Continuity]. Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1993. 168 p. (In Russian)
  43. Uskenbay Q. Ulusy pervykh Dzhuchidov. Problema terminov Ak-Orda i Kok-Orda [Uluses of the First Jochids. A Problem of Terms Ak Orda and Kok Orda]. Tyurkologicheskiy sbornik. 2005. Tyurkskiye narody Rossii i Velikoy stepi [Turkological Collection. 2005. Turkic Peoples of Russia and the Great Steppe]. S.G. Klyashtornyy. T.I. Sultanov. V.V. Trepavlov (eds.). Moscow: Vostochnaya literatura, 2006, pp. 355–382. (InRussian)
  44. Uskenbay Q.Z. Vostochnyy Dasht-i Kypchak v 13 – nachale 15 veka. Problemy etnopoliticheskoy istorii Ulusa Dzhuchi [The Eastern Desht-i Kipchak in the 13th– early 15th Problems of Ethnopolitical History of the Jochid Ulus]. Kazan: Fen Publ., 2013. 288 p. (In Russian)
  45. Fedorov-Davydov G.A. Obshchestvennyy stroy Zolotoy Ordy [Social Organization of the Golden Horde]. Moscow: Moscow State University, 1973. 180 p. (In Russian)
  46. Khristianskiy mir i “Velikaya Mongolskaya imperiya”. Materialy frantsiskanskoy missii 1245 goda [The Christian World and the “Great Mongol Empire”. Materials of Franciscan Mission of 1245]. S.V. Aksenov, A.G. Yurchenko (trans.). Moscow: Evraziya, 2002. 478 p. (In Russian)
  47. Allsen T. The Princes of the Left Hand: An Introduction to the History of the ulus of Orda in the Thirteenth and Early Fourteenth Centuries. Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi, 1985 [1987], pp. 5–40.
  48. Bretschneider E. Mediaeval Researches from Eastern Asiatic Sources. Fragments towards the Knowledge of the Geography and History of Central and Western Asia from the 13th to the 17th Vol. I. With a Map of Middle Asia. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trèubner & Co, 1910. XII, 334 p.
  49. Clark L.V. The Turkic and Mongol Words in William of Rubruck’s Journey (1253–1255). Journal of the American Oriental Society, 1973, vol. 93, no. 2, pp. 181–189.
  50. Clauson G. An Etymological Dictionary of Pre-Thirteenth-Century Turkish. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1972. xlviii, 989 p.
  51. Codex Cumanicus. GKuun (ed.). Budapest: Magyar Tudományos Akadémia Könyvtár, 1981. 54, cxxxiv, 395 p. (In Latin)
  52. Doerfer G. Türkische und mongolische Elemente im Neupersischen unter besonderer Berücksichtigung älterer neupersischer Geschichtsquellen vor allem der Mongolen- und Timuridenzeit.1. Mongolische Elemente im Neupersischen. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1963. XLVIII, 557 p. (In German)
  53. Doerfer G. Türkische und mongolische Elemente im Neupersischen unter besonderer Berücksichtigung älterer neupersischer Geschichtsquellen vor allem der Mongolen- und Timuridenzeit.2. Türkische Elemente im Neupersischen. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1965. V, 671 p. (In German)
  54. Gabain A. (von). Steppe und Stadt im Leben der ältesten Türken. Der Islam, 1949, vol. 29, pt. 1, pp. 30–62. (In German)
  55. Genghis Khan. The History of the World-Conqueror by ‘Ala-ad-Din ‘Ata-Malik Juvaini.A. Boyle (trans.), D.O. Morgan (introd.). Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1997. lxvii, 763 p.
  56. Güner G. Codex Cumanicus’ta Moğolca Alıntı Kelimeler Üzerine Yeni Bir Yaklaşım. Gazi Türkiyat-Türkoloji Araştırmaları Dergisi, 2017, vol. 20, pp. 9–24. (In Turkish)
  57. Maḥmūd al-Kāšγarī. Compendium of the Turkic Dialects (Dīwān Luγāt at–Turk). Pt. I. R. Dankoff, J. Kelly (eds.). Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Office of the University Publisher, 1982. XI, 416 p.
  58. Menges K.H. [Rev.] Nicholas Poppe, Jr. : “Studies of Turkic Loan Words in Russian”. Asiatische Forschungen, Bd. 34. 70 pp. Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden, 1971. Central Asiatic Journal, 1976, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 222–229.
  59. Ögel В. Türk Kültür Tarihine Giriş.1. Türklerde Köy ve Şehir Hayati. Göktürklerden Osmanlılara. Ankara: Kültür Bakanlığı Yayınları, 1978. XVI, 496 p. (In Turkish)
  60. Ögel В. Türk Kültür Tarihine Giriş. 7. Türklerde ordu, ordugâh, ve otağ: devlet, ordu, ve aile disiplinin temelleri. Hunlardan Osmanlılara. XXIII, 2. bk. Ankara: Kültür Bakanlığı Yayınları, 1991. 412 p. (In Turkish)
  61. Pelliot P. [Rev. on] I. BRATIANU, Recherches sur le commerce génois dans la Mer Noire au XIIIe siècle, Paris, Geuthner, 1929, in-8, xii + 359 pages, avec 5 pl. et 1 carte. T’oung Pao (Second Series), 1930, vol. 27, no. 2/3, pp. 203–211. (In French)
  62. Pelliot P. Notes sur l’histoire de la Horde d’Or, suivi de Quelques noms turcs d’hommes et de peuples finissant en -ar (är), -ur (ür), -ïr (ir). Paris : Adrien-Maisonneuve, 1949. 292 p. (In French)
  63. Pelliot P. Recherches sur les chrétiens d’Asie centrale et d’Extrême-Orient: I. En marge de Jean du Plan Carpin. II. Guillaume de Rubrouck. III. Màr Ya(h)bhallàhâ. J. Dauvillier, L. Hambis (eds.). Paris: Imprimerie nationale, 1973. iv, 307 p. (In French)
  64. Rachewiltz I. de. [Rev. on] GIOVANNI DI PIAN DE CARPINE, Storia dei Mongoli, a cura di P. Daffinà, C. Leonardi, M.C. Lungarotti, E. Menestò, L. Petech, Spoleto, Centro Italiano de Studi sull’Alto Medioevo, 1989, 522 pp. + 20 ill. Rivista degli studi orientali, 1990, vol. 64, fasc. 3/4, pp. 420–429.
  65. Rybatzki V. Die Personennamen und Titel der Mittelmongolischen Dokumente. Eine lexikalische Untersuchung. Helsinki: Yliopistopaino Oy, 2006. xxxv, 841 p. (In German)
  66. Sinor D. Mongol and Turkic words in the Latin versions of John of Plano Carpini’s Journey to the Mongols (1245–1247). Sinor D. Inner Asia and its Contacts with Medieval Europe. London: Variorum Reprints, 1977, pp. 537–551.
  67. Steingass F.J. A comprehensive Persian-English dictionary: including the Arabic words and phrases to be met with in Persian literature: being Johnson and Richardson’s Persian, Arabic, and English dictionary. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services, 1992. 1548 p.
  68. Şirin User H. Köktürk ve Ötüken Uygur Kağanlığı Yazıtları. Söz Varlığı İncele­mesi. Konya: Kömen Yayınları, 2009. 548 p. (In Turkish)
  69. The Secret History of the Mongols. A Mongolian Epic Chronicle of the Thirteenth Century, I. de Rachewiltz (trans., comment.). Vol. I–II. Leiden: Boston: E.J. Brill, 2004. cxxvii, 2, 1349 p.
  70. Vásáry I. The Beginnings of Coinage in the Blue Horde. Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 2009, vol. 62(4), pp. 371–385.
  71. Wittfogel K.A., Fêng Chia-shêng. History of Chinese society: Liao (907–1125), with the assistance of John De Francis, Esther S. Goldfrank, Lea Kisselgoff, and Karl H. Menges. Philadelphia, The American Philosophical. Association; distributed by the Macmillan Company, 1949. xv, 752 p.

About the author: Vladimir V. Tishin – Cand. Sci. (History), Senior Research Fellow of the Institute for Mongolian, Buddhist and Tibetan Studies of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (6, Sakhyanova Str., Ulan-Ude 670047, Russian Federation); ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7344-0996. E-mail: tihij-511@mail.ru

Received   March 1, 2019   Accepted for publication  May 30, 2019
Published online  June 29, 2019