2023, vol. 11, no. 1. Malikov A.

2023, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 143-166

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22378/2313-6197.2023-11-1.143-166
EDN: https://elibrary.ru/MJQEND


Azim Malikov
Palacky University Olomouc
Olomouc, Czech Republic

Abstract: Research objectives: The objective of this research is to analyze the culture and monumental architecture of Samarkand during the reign of the Shibanids, and to identify the origins of cultural traditions in architectural construction in Samarkand between 1512–1578.
Research materials: The study mainly uses historical works by Central Asian, Persian, and Turkic authors from the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries, such as Khwandamir, Zayn ad-din Vasifi, Abdallah Nasrallahi, Mirza Muhammad Haydar, Nisari, Hafiz Tanysh Bukhari, Raqimi, as well as archive materials of L. Mankovskaya and M. Masson from the Central State Archive of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Additionally, publications of Russian, Soviet, and post-Soviet specialists on the history of Central Asia, including V. Bartold, A. Semenov, R. Mukminova, B. Akhmedov, R. McChesney, T. Sultanov, K. Baypakov, E. Smagulov, D. DeWeese, F. Schwartz, A. Muminov, K. Kattaev, B. Babajanov, V. Norik, etc. are also analyzed in detail.
Results and novelty of the research: The Shibanids Kuchkunji Khan, Suyunchkhoja Khan, and their descendants combined Jochid and Timurid roots in their genealogy and used this to legitimize their rule. The political system of the state, characterized by strong regionalism in which Samarkand stood out, influenced the formation of local cultural identity, which was reflected in the monumental architecture in Samarkand. This architecture shows a synthesis of cultural traditions from the Syr Darya regions of Ulus Jochi and Khorezm and the Timurid heritage of Maverannahr. During the 16th century in Samarkand, three memorial places with different architectural styles and geographical locations were built, where representatives of the Shibanid dynasty were buried. Each of them reflected different ideological lines, followed by certain representatives of the Shibanids. According to the author, the Shibanids-Kuchkunjids built a madrasah in Samarkand that continued certain Timurid traditions, while simultaneously incorporating elements of Golden Horde architecture. The construction of the madrasah of Abu Said Khan in the historical centre of Samarkand, near the madrasah of Mirzo Ulugbek, had symbolic meaning. The first Shibanids supported the use of the Turkic language in Maverannahr due to both Timurid traditions and the Golden Horde heritage, in which the Turkic literary language occupied a significant place.

Keywords: Golden Horde, Shibanids, Central Asia, madrasa, mausoleum, Samarkand, legitimation

For citation: Malikov A. The Shibanid rule in Samarkand: Legitimation, Culture and Monumental Architecture (1512–1578). Zolotoordynskoe obozrenie=Golden Horde Review. 2023, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 143–166. DOI: 10.22378/2313-6197.2023-11-1.143-166 (In Russian)

Financial Support:Research on the topic of the article was carried out thanks to the European Regional Development Fund – Project “Sinophone Borderlands: Interaction at the Edges” CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16_019/0000791”.


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About the author: Azim Malikov – Cand. Sci. (History), Senior Researcher of the Department of Asian Studies, Faculty of Arts, Palacky University Olomouc (26, Svoboda Str., Olomouc 77900, Czech Republic); ORCID: 0000-0002-0173-2014. E-mail: azimmal2018@gmail.com

Received  January 13, 2023   Accepted for publication  March 2, 2023
Published  Online March 29, 2023